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HIST 1312-003, Week 4 Notes

by: Miranda Notetaker

HIST 1312-003, Week 4 Notes HIST 1312-003

Miranda Notetaker
GPA 3.308

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These notes cover this week's lectures
U.S. History from 1865
Bradley Folsom
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miranda Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1312-003 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Bradley Folsom in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see U.S. History from 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Highlighted in Blue: important concepts In red: guaranteed to be on the exam (know the year) Old West & New South: 1865-1890  Farming in America o Subsistence Farming to Tenant Farming  Subsistence farming: only farming enough for their family  Farmers go in debt (drafted to go off to war, not as many workers in farm)  Farmers lose their land and have to resort to tenant farming  Tenant farming: someone who has no land of their own works (and lives on) a part of someone else’s land (the owner gets part of the money/crops)  Tenant farmers go into more debt (because of the cut that the land owner’s take from their crops)  Living conditions decrease o Farmers become more dependent on railroads  Railroad cost increases, farmers reliant on railroads, pay more $  Open the West! o 1862 – Homestead Act: if you go to a federal official and ask for land, you can have it and farm on it (as long as when the official comes back in 5 years they must have improved part of the land)  Not very popular yet BECAUSE –  It’s unknown, scary land  Cannot afford start-up costs  Transportation  Family & Friends  No jobs  Slowly, people begin to move out west o The Transcontinental Railroad  A long railroad that has many forks that helps people travel all the way out west in the US  Killings of buffalo along the railroad  New rifles kill MANY buffalo  Buffalo population dropping drastically , going EXTINCT  Hunted for their meat and hides o Plains Indians  Rely on buffalo  US is planning to pursue a peaceful relationship with the Plains Indians  Plains Indians begin attacking buffalo hunters (Comanche raids)  US sends out soldiers to engage in fights with the Comanche, forces them to surrender & move onto a reservation o Sioux Indians  Treaty - As long as the Sioux stay in a certain designated area, the US will leave them alone  Discovery of gold within Sioux territory (in the Black Hills)  US violate their treaty to mine  Sioux leaders go to talk to Grant, Grant gives $6million to leaders if you leave the Black Hills  “Sitting Bull” is a Sioux Indian who goes off to attack the US for violating the treaty o The Battle of the Little Bighorn – 1876 (Or “Custer’s Last Stand”)  Grant sends out George Armstrong Custer to attack Sitting Bull and his followers  June 25 – Custer plans to attack Sitting Bull from both sides (to cause confusion & prevent them from getting to their horses)  Underestimates how many Indians there were, retreats at last minute  Sioux Indians are on horseback, fighting back while Custer and his troops retreat  Conclusion: US begins fighting back, Indians eventually give in or die o Indian Reservations  Give up arms and horses, and they would have food and shelter given to them  US shorts them on their food and shelter  Dawes Act – 1887 – authorizes the President of the US to to observe American Indian land and divide it into sections for individual Indians (away from the tribe, get US citizenship) o Moving out to the West  Murder rate in the west drops as more people move out west  Discovery of digging wells 200 feet down (more people then move West)  Agriculture in the West  Ogallala Aquifer – “ocean under land” in the West  Wind pumps to get water to farm  John Deere  Farming Problem Solving o Organizations  The Grange – farmers sharing, trying to make things more efficient (helps people get elected who will help with railroad rates and other farming problems)  Farmer’s Alliance – first attempt at a national-level farming change  The Populist Party  Farmers trying to run against Republicans and Democrats  Formed in the West, but aimed nationally  The Subtreasury System – federal gov’t should build and operate depots where farmers can store their crops, gov’t give paper money to farmers to go buy seeds for next year (keeps $ in circulation)  Free Silver – back paper $ by silver (instead of gold), increase $ in circulation  Progressive Income Tax: charge people by how much they make  Direct election of senators  Gov’t should own the railroads (cut down on railroad use cost)  The 1896 Presidential Election  Grover Cleveland wins 1892 election (small gov’t)  Everyone hates him, everyone wants gov’t to get involved in economy  Democrats want to merge with the Populist Party to gain voters  William Jennings Bryan – lawyer, no gambling, no liquor, Democratic party  Says that they need to change the Democratic party  Wants to be the Democratic candidate  Travels around for 3 months, gives speeches, wins people over  Doesn’t have a lot of $ backing his campaign  William McKinley  Republican nominee  Small gov’t, gold standard  Pro-business  Doesn’t travel, stays on his front porch and waits for questions  Has A LOT of money for his campaign  Rumors that WJB is a Socialist  William McKinley wins the election Read Chapter 19 of the textbook Imperial America 1896-1903  Expanison o Anti-Imperialism  Colonialism- control or influence over a nation o Hawaii  Polynesians come to the island to live  Has enough resources to last them for many years  James Cook – English explorer set out to find the unknown  Comes across Hawaii  Hawaiians trade with him  Leaves but returns a year later (everything has changed when he comes back)  Everyone has diseases, there are rats and fleas  Everyone attacks and kills James Cook  Many different people begin showing up in Hawaii  Sugar cane can be easily grown there  Monarchy  Sells land for people to farm, etc.  Queen Liluokalani  Writes a new constitution to give herself more power  Only ethnic Hawaiians can vote  Native Hawaiian population has decreased  US Navy vessel sets out soldiers to protect the American people in Hawaii  Queen surrenders  Republic of Hawaii  Calls Grover Cleveland to see if he wants Hawaii  GC refuses Hawaii (likes small gov’t)  Colonialism o Cuba  Cubans put into Concentration camps, diseases begin to spread, starving  Yellow Journalism – playing up devastation in newspapers  Americans want to fight back  Gov’t refuses  McKinley gets into office  Teddy Roosevelt wants to go to war with Spain to show off their new technology  The DeLome Letter – basically saying that the US president is not going to do anything  People pushing for war  Explosion of a US ship on the coast of Cuba (newspapers say it’s the Spaniards who blew up the ship, Americans want war)  McKinley asks Congress for permission to declare Cuba free of Spain  Teller Amendment – not going to take over Cuba after removing Spain  Spain declares war with US o Spanish American War  The Philippines  Emilio Aguinaldo  US decides to attack the Spanish fleet at the Philippines (to help Philippine independence)  Guam  US takes Guam easily  Cuba  US establishes a blockade around Cuba  US defeats Spanish forces there  Takes Puerto Rico as well  Spanish call for a cease fire o Imperialism Begins in the US  US wants Puerto Rico, Guam, and Hawaii (not Cuba)


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