Week notes from March 23rd-27th
Week notes from March 23rd-27th GEO 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Reid on Monday March 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at Washington State University taught by Wilkie in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/30/15
March 23 2015 G ravity is the controlling force Factors that In uence Mass Wasting 1 Nature of slope material Solid Rock Stability of solid rock may be reduced by deformation structuresl folds and faults mechanical weathering chemical weathering sedimeta ry weathering foliated metamorphic rocks Unconsolidated Material Angle of Repose The maximum angle at which a slope of loose material will lie without cascading down Vegetation Plants add slope stability by protection against erosion 2 Water Content Water lls pore spaces between sediments reduces internal resistence adds weight Unsaturated VS Saturated 0 Dry particles bound only by size and friction with one another Unsaturated bound by surface tension of water resist movementlike a sand castle Saturated particles separated by water acts as a lubricant allowing them to ow 3 The steepness of the slope Process that can create steeper slopes Faulting Folding Tilting structures River cutting Erosion Wave Action Quarrying Road Cuts Classi cation of Mass Mass wasting events are classi ed by Natu re of material consolidated or unconsolidated Speed few cmyr Nature of movement as one unit or as a uid Classi cation Fall Soid blocks of rock fall rapidly ms from a steep of vertical slope Talus rocky accumulation at the foot of a step cliff Rock Avalanche ows by entraining air as it moves down slope Slide Single mass of Rock rock slide or sediment rock slide is released and moves rapidly Creep downhill movement of soil or other debris Slowest mass wasting process m myr Unconsolidated material moves slowly downslope under the in uence of gravity 0 Causes once vertical objects to slant over time Slump A rapid slide of unconsolidated material usually soil or rock along a curved surface typical of the Palouse Flows high water content Earth ow soils relatively slow Debris ows more coarse than sand can carry huge boulders Mud ows and Lahars unconsolidated sediment of soil karger quantities of water both can carry huge boulders Debris Avalanche materials coarser soil and rock usually in mountains areas and moves extremely rapidly sometimes gt 200kmhr March 25 2015 What should you look for as indicators of potential mass wasting problems evidence of prior mass wasting hummocky topography irregular surface scars on mountain side accumulation of rock and unconsolidated material at case of slope open cracks on the surface ook for planes of weakness beds parallel valley wall unnatural steep slopes What causes or triggers a mass wasting event Triggers 1 Heavy Rain Undercutting slopes by running water increased weigh of wet soil increased uid pressure reduces frictional resistance 2 Earthquakes ground shaking can trigger landslides 3 Volcanoes hydrothermal alteration chemical alters rock weakening it ground shaking can trigger landslides 4 Human Activity added mass of buildings on slope removal of vegetation increase angle of slopes addition of water Preventive measures to human impact slope and load reduction
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