Lifespan notes week 6
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2010 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter 6: Socioemotional Development in Infancy 9/19/16 Developing the roots of sociability • Emotions o What are emotions? o Have biological arousal component, cognitive component and behavioral component o How do we know infants experience emotions? o What functions do emotional expressions have: § Behavioral organization (social responses, adaptive behavior) § Communication o Stranger anxiety § Begins sometime in the middle of the first year; more accepting of females and children; if they have more experience with others o Separation anxiety § Begins 7-8 months, peaks around 14 months o Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety are universal, represent increased cognitive abilities and bonds with parents o Social referencing: intentionally looking to another for information about the situation § Begins around 8-9 months § Mixed message (such as different ones from mom/dad) can cause distress § Often will use social referencing when the situation is ambiguous/unclear • Self awareness o Often tested by the mirror and rouge experiment o Gain capability after 17 months; also some awareness of their capabilities § Elephants are one of the only other animals who can do this • Theory of mind o Explanations that children use to explain how others think o Shown in § People as “compliant agents” § Empathy (by about 2 years) § Deception (dogs can too – like her dog Chet) • Temperament: patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent, enduring characteristics of the individual o Appears largely genetic and stable, but modifiable by child rearing practices o Elements include: § Activity level § Irritability (how easily disturbed) § Rhythmicity (regularity) § Quality of mood § Approach-withdrawal (to new people, situations) Chapter 6: Socioemotional Development in Infancy (cont.) 9/21/16 Developing the roots of sociability (cont.) • Temperament (cont.) o Classification of temperament (Thomas and Chess: 3 major types) § Easy (40%): positive disposition, high rhythmicity, adaptability, moderate or low intensity § Difficult (10%): negative moods slow to adapt, withdrawal, high irritability § Slow-to-warm (15%): inactive, calm, but negative mood and withdraw from new situations – adapt, but slowly § The other 35% is a mix of these o Goodness of fit: how do parents react (warmth and consistency vs. anger and inconsistency) § Especially influential with difficult babies • Gender: sense of being male or female o Sex: who you are biologically o Very few actual differences (other than anatomical) between boys and girls o Behavioral differences are because kids are socialized into gender roles of the culture o Boys shaped more toward independence, girls toward dependence and compliance Social relationships • Attachment: balancing safety and security and the need to explore and learn new skills • Use Ainsworth Strange Situation Test to determine attachment status o Secure: explore independently, +/- upset when mom leaves, comforted when returns § Mom exhibits “interactional synchrony,” sensitive, responsive, warm § Child more independent, curious, etc. o Ambivalent: low exploration, high distress when mom leaves, ambivalent reaction when returns § Mom provides inconsistent care and responsiveness § Child dependent and anxious; as adult they may be more jealous o Avoidant: doesn’t interact with mom, not distressed when she leaves, avoids her when she returns. “Given up” on getting emotional needs met § Mom- low on synchronicity, sensitivity and warmth; acts as if child is a burden § Child later is less involved with others and distant o Disorganized, disoriented: inconsistent, contradictory behavior (run to mom but then collapse and wait for mom to come to them) § Sometimes associated with abusive families § May experience dissociative experiences in adolescence • “This isn’t really happening to me, it’s happening to someone else” • Lose periods of time Chapter 6: Socioemotional Development in Infancy (cont.) 9/23/16 Social relationships (cont.) • Erikson- psychosocial stages of development o Have to get through one stage in order to move on to the next stage o Infancy- 2 stages § Trust vs. mistrust: depends on how well needs are met by caregivers (1-18 months) • Don’t let the child “cry it out” during the first year/year and a half – you can’t spoil them § Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: develop independence (18-36 months) • Autonomy if parents encourage exploration, freedom • Develop shame, self-doubt, unhappiness if parents overly restrictive/protective • Reciprocal socialization: infants’ behaviors invite responses from parents, which then elicit infants’ reactions • Interactions with peers: smile, laugh, vocalize more while looking at peers than at a mirror image of selves o By 9-12 months, accept toys from each other o By 14 months, reproduce other’s behaviors
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