Bio 3 Week 5 Notes for Farnsley
Bio 3 Week 5 Notes for Farnsley Biology 1130
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Nord on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1130 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Farnsley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology III in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Biology 3 Farnsley Week 9/21– 9/23 Chapter 33 1. Angiosperms are flowering plants that are… a. Vascular; which allows water pass through easer and faster i. Making them a lot bigger than nonvascular plants b. They have flowers (obviously) i. The flowering parts have to interesting in some way. So an interact pattern or just being brightly colored is enough. 1. This helps with pollination. c. And have seeds. i. some are enclosed in fruits 2. Plants can be a. Annual i. A plant that is has a life span of about 1 year. b. Perennials i. Plants that have a life span of about 2 or more years. c. Biannual i. Plants that have a life span of about 2 years. 3. There are 2 types of angiosperms a. Herbaceous; i. The leave and stems die or reduce when their growing season is over. There is no wood like stem above ground ii. These are usual annual plants. So they grow, reproduce and then die within a 1 year time frame iii. Fransley’s examples; corn, geraniums b. Woody; i. Stems that are above ground DO NOT die after their particular growing season. They stay alive during the dominate season. These are usually perennials. ii. Examples; Trees 4. The plant body has 2 systems. Most plants have both because they need help from below and above ground to thrive. a. Root system i. This is usually underground and continues to grow as the plant grows b. Shoot system i. This system is above ground and consists of stems that have leaves, fruit or flowers on them. Or any combination of the 3. 5. Cells are basic structures that make up all living organisms. Plant cells have cell walls a. These cell walls give the plants some structure. With 4060% of the cell wall being made of cellulose. i. The cellulose is made of glucose units (see it’s all coming back full circle.) b. The cellulose is held together by hydrogen bonds. They are then packed together creating microfibrils. c. These microfibrils are held together by hemicelluloses and pectin. Which act like cement, keeping the microfibrils together. d. So cellulose is held by hydrogen bonds. These cellulose links are compacted into microfibrils. Which are held together by hemicelluloses and pectin (which are like plant cement). 6. Cell walls usually made of 2 parts (not all plant cells have/need 2 parts). a. Primary cell wall; i. The outer layer ii. This expands while the cell grows b. Secondary cell wall; i. A thick layer inside the primary cell wall. This gives a little more structure to the cell ii. The secondary cell wall is made up of lignin. Which is a strengthen polymer 7. Now remember the 2 plant body systems? Well, within those 2 body systems, there are 3 tissue systems a. Ground tissue system is made up of 3 tissue systems. Theses 3 systems help in photosynthesis, secretion, storage, and support. i. Parenchyma; the cells in this tissue are metabolically alive and active. This could be the edible part of a potato or an apple. ii. Collenchymas; this part is flexible and strong, which gives the plant some support. It also allows the plant to grow and move around to compete for sunlight. They are usually at near the stem surface and stringy (like the strings in a celery stock). iii. Sclerenchyma; this tissue main objective is to give structure. The mature cells of this tissue die b. Vascular tissue system is made of 2 tissue systems that helps conduct minerals through the plant. i. Xylem; this conducts water, and dissolves minerals, with the help or tracheids and vessel elements, from the roots to stems and leaves. 1. Tracheids are hollow long and skinny cells that are clumped together and pass a little bit of water through. The water is passed from one tracheid to the next like a chain. 2. Vessel elements larger, wider cells that are stacked like water pipes and allow more water to flow. 3. Both tracheids and vessel elements are hollow due to apoptosis (programmed cell death). ii. Phloem; conducts carbohydrates from photosynthesis to stems and leaves. 1. Sieve tube elements help conduct food materials. They are stacked as well with sieve plates at the ends. 2. They live till maturity and then disintegrate. 3. Companion cells help the sieve tube elements move sugar while plasmodesmata link companion cells and sieve tube element together. iii. This system is embedded into the ground tissue system c. Dermal tissue system provides a covering over the plant body with the help of the epidermis and periderm. (but we’ll only look at the epidermis) i. The epidermis is thin to allow light to pass through. 1. it is also covered in a waxy cuticle to prevent water loss 2. Stomata are little holes on the epidermis to allow gases to diffuse out. ii. Now there can be some outgrowth of the epidermis like; 1. trichomes; which allows light reflection and keeps internal tissues cool 2. root hairs; increase the surface area of roots to increase water absorption 8. In animals all parts of its body grow. However, unlike animals, only certain areas of a plant grow a. Meristems, or stem cells, are area of mitotic division. i. Stem cells, or meristems, are undifferentiated. b. Parts of a plant can either have a determinate or indeterminate growth process. i. Indeterminate growth; growing continually 1. roots and stems would have indeterminate growth ii. determinate growth; stop growing after a certain size 1. leaves and flowers would have determinate growth 9. Plants go though primary and secondary growth a. Primary growth; an increase of stem and root growth i. This occurs at the apical meristem, or the apex. This is located at the tip of the roots and shoot b. Secondary growth; an increase in plant girth (so the width of a plant) i. Lateral meristem is the site for secondary growth. ii. Trees and shrubs go through this process. Bark on trees adds bulk to the tree giving it more girth during this process.