CRJ 260 Week 6 Chapter 3 Book Notes
CRJ 260 Week 6 Chapter 3 Book Notes CRJ 260
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bishop on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 260 at Lenoir-Rhyne University taught by Dr. Robert Stallings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Lenoir-Rhyne University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
CRJ 260 Week 6 (9/27/169/29/16) Chapter 3: Understanding Crime and Victimization Reading p.103111 Sociological Theories p.103111 Emile Durkheim (18581917) who viewed crime as a social phenomenon and stated that crime is an essential part of society and a function of its internal conflict Anomie: absence or weakness of rules and social norms in any person or group; an individual may not be able to distinguish right from wrong A. Social Structure Theory p. 103105 the stratifications, classes, institutions, and groups that characterize a society social strata are created by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige social classes are segments of the population whose members share relatively similar attitudes, values, and norms and have an identifiable lifestyle a) Racial Disparity average AfricanAmerican family income is $33,321 compared to non Hispanic White families income of $57,009 27% are living in poverty twice the rate (13.1) for unemployment more likely to be processed by the court culture of poverty: people in the lower class of society form a separate culture with their own norms and values marked by apathy, cynicism, helplessness, distrust B. The Disorganized Neighborhood p.105108 crime is a natural outcome of life in neighborhoods characterized by physical deterioration and by conflicting values and social systems they are undergoing the disintegration of their existing culture and services, the diffusion of cultural standards, and successive changes from residential to a mix of commercial, industrial, and transresident major sources of informal social controlfamily, school, neighborhood, and civil servicesare broken and ineffective collective efficacy: mutual trust, a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children, and the maintenance of public orderoccurs in neighborhoods that have a high level of formal and informal social order C. Strain p.107108 status frustration occurs because legitimate avenues for success are all but closed Robert Merton: 1. Innovation: the use of innovative but illegal means to achieve success in the absence of legitimate means 2. Retreatism: those who innovate but choose to live as drug users, alcoholics, and wanderers 3. Rebellion: those who join revolutionary political groups and work to change the system to their liking Robert Agnew’s Sources of Strain and Consequences p.107 Sources of Strain Failure to achieve goals Disjunction of expectations and achievements Removal of positive stimuli Preservation of negative stimuli Negative Affective States Anger Frustration Disappointment Depression Fear Antisocial Behavior Drug abuse Delinquency Violence Dropping out Social Process Theories p.108111 Family Problems parental efficacy: parents who are able to be supportive and who can therefore effectively control their children in a nonthreatening fashion children whose parents are harsh, angry, and irritable grow up to behave in the same way toward their children Education chronic delinquents do poorly in school, lack educational motivation, and are frequently held back Peers 1. Social learning theory: people learn the techniques and attitudes of crime from close relationships with criminal peers. Crime is a learned behavior. 2. Social control theory: everyone has the potential to become a criminal but that most people are controlled by their bonds to society. Crime occurs when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or broken. 3. Social relation (labeling) theory: people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such. The Labeling Process p.111 Initial criminal actdetection by justice systemdecision to labelcreation of a new identity acceptance of labelsdeviance amplification
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