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CRJ 260 Week 6 Chapter 3 Book Notes

by: Samantha Bishop

CRJ 260 Week 6 Chapter 3 Book Notes CRJ 260

Marketplace > Lenoir-Rhyne University > Criminal Justice > CRJ 260 > CRJ 260 Week 6 Chapter 3 Book Notes
Samantha Bishop

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About this Document

These notes cover the reading for 09/27-29/16 (p.103-111).
Introduction to Criminal Justice
Dr. Robert Stallings
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bishop on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 260 at Lenoir-Rhyne University taught by Dr. Robert Stallings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Lenoir-Rhyne University.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
CRJ 260 Week 6 (9/27/16­9/29/16) Chapter 3: Understanding Crime and Victimization Reading p.103­111 Sociological Theories p.103­111  Emile Durkheim (1858­1917) who viewed crime as a social phenomenon and stated that crime is an essential part of society and a function of its internal conflict  Anomie: absence or weakness of rules and social norms in any person or group; an  individual may not be able to distinguish right from wrong A. Social Structure Theory p. 103­105 ­ the stratifications, classes, institutions, and groups that characterize a society  ­ social strata are created by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and  prestige ­ social classes are segments of the population whose members share relatively  similar attitudes, values, and norms and have an identifiable lifestyle a) Racial Disparity ­ average African­American family income is $33,321 compared to non­ Hispanic White families income of $57,009 ­ 27% are living in poverty ­ twice the rate (13.1) for unemployment ­ more likely to be processed by the court ­ culture of poverty: people in the lower class of society form a separate  culture with their own norms and values ­ marked by apathy, cynicism, helplessness, distrust B. The Disorganized Neighborhood p.105­108 ­ crime is a natural outcome of life in neighborhoods characterized by physical  deterioration and by conflicting values and social systems ­ they are undergoing the disintegration of their existing culture and services, the  diffusion of cultural standards, and successive changes from residential to a mix  of commercial, industrial, and trans­resident ­ major sources of informal social control­family, school, neighborhood, and civil  services­are broken and ineffective ­ collective efficacy: mutual trust, a willingness to intervene in the supervision of  children, and the maintenance of public order­­­occurs in neighborhoods that  have a high level of formal and informal social order C. Strain p.107­108 ­ status frustration occurs because legitimate avenues for success are all but  closed Robert Merton: 1. Innovation: the use of innovative but illegal means to achieve success in  the absence of legitimate means 2. Retreatism: those who innovate but choose to live as drug users,  alcoholics, and wanderers 3. Rebellion: those who join revolutionary political groups and work to  change the system to their liking Robert Agnew’s Sources of Strain and Consequences p.107 Sources of Strain  Failure to achieve goals  Disjunction of expectations and achievements  Removal of positive stimuli  Preservation of negative stimuli  Negative Affective States  Anger  Frustration  Disappointment  Depression  Fear  Antisocial Behavior  Drug abuse  Delinquency  Violence  Dropping out Social Process Theories p.108­111  Family Problems ­ parental efficacy: parents who are able to be supportive and who can therefore  effectively control their children in a nonthreatening fashion ­ children whose parents are harsh, angry, and irritable grow up to behave in the  same way toward their children  Education ­ chronic delinquents do poorly in school, lack educational motivation, and are  frequently held back  Peers 1. Social learning theory: people learn the techniques and attitudes of crime  from close relationships with criminal peers. Crime is a learned behavior. 2. Social control theory: everyone has the potential to become a criminal but that most people are controlled by their bonds to society. Crime occurs  when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or broken. 3. Social relation (labeling) theory: people become criminals when  significant members of society label them as such. The Labeling Process p.111 Initial criminal act­­­detection by justice system­­­decision to label­­­creation of a new identity­­­ acceptance of labels­­­deviance amplification 


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