Intro to World Geography - Week 6
Intro to World Geography - Week 6 1123
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Baker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro world geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Intro to World Geography Mercosur- the “southern Common Market” - purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency - economic bloc containing Member States and Associate States SA Urbanization - city populations have grown steadily since 1950 - >80% of the population is urban - cities provide opportunities - increased chance of making money - Better education - more “things” to do Poverty in SA - disparity of Rich and Poor - Favelas- the slums of brazil Problems in SA - slums produce crime and disease - very high levels of corruption - Colombia: drug trade - Venezuela: murder rate is 10x higher than the US The Caribbean North Region - Plantation type of lifestyle with European influence in Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana - population mostly along the coast Colombia - population tends to congregate in the Andes Mnts. - Largest Export: coffee - Narcotics are next: 70% of the US cocaine comes from Colombia - Cartels influence the political system, army and police - fight for control of the trade network and growing of cocoa plants - almost overthrew the government in 1999 - in some cases the cartels have their own army to fight the state and police Venezuela - 29.7 million people live in Venezuela -mostly in the highlands -farming and cattle grazing - contains the worlds largest water fall (Angel Falls) - largely Spanish decent and catholic - poor economy in the 1990s -value of the Venezuelan dollar devalued and social unrest - in 1998, Hugo Chavez rose to power -rewrote the constitution (focused on social and economic equality) -tension with the US -in 2007, formed united socialist party of Venezuela -remained neutral in the drug wars -traded with Cuba -threatened to stop commerce with US - died of cancer in 2012 - future of the country is unknown at the moment French Guiana - still under french control - official overseas French Department -currency - Economy -not much agriculture -exports gold and seafood The Andean West Region - Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Paraguay - most of the Amerindian population is located here today - Rich with untapped resources (oil, minerals) Peru - along the 1000 miles of SA west coast -geography is defined by three zones - 30.4 million people -1/2 are amerindian - Desert Coast: -city of Lima (500 yrs old) -40 oases which produce citrus, olives and vegetables - Sierra (Andes Mnt) - contains remnants of the Incan culture -very poor population, mostly mine workers -Produces 20% of the worlds gold -also Copper, Zinc, and lead - Selva (amazon rainforest) -contains the city of Iquitos -Iquitos can only be reached by transversing the 2300 mile Amazon River Ecuador - situated directly over the equator (hence the name) - 14.7 million people -mostly live in the fertile valleys and along the Pacific Coast - leading export is oil and seafood -Bananas, cattle, and coffee to be grown “Isolas de Galapagos” (Galapagos Islands) - annexed by Ecuador in 1832 - very interesting biodiversity - visited by Charles Darwin in 1835 Bolivia - large amerindian population - country is divided currently -Spanish (east) vs. Amerindians (west) -clash of culture and fight for power - 60% speak spanish -no official language -90% illiteracy rate The Southern Cone - Argentina, Chile, Uruguay - tied together through trade -Mercosur - physically diverse -Mountains (west)/ Pampas (east) Argentina - Second in area to Brazil - 41.3 million people - contains large flat grassland area - Pampas - mostly Spanish, heavily influenced by Italians and Germans - 91% of the country’s population lives in an urban environment Chile - the longest N-S country in the world - mining is huge -copper - exports lots of vegetables to the US - lots of earthquakes (ring of fire) Brazil - powerhouse of SA -in resources, people, and geographic area - rich in farmland, tropical rainforest, untapped resources - 200 million people, diverse populace -13 cities over 1 million people -70% of population is Catholic - soccer is the national sport; 2016 olympics Brazil Economy - economy has done well since adopting democracy in 198 - common exports: -Agriculture: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus, and beef -mining: iron, oil, natural gas, gold -manufacturing: airplanes, footwear/clothing, electrical equipment - tourism is huge -rainforest -beaches Europe: - Polycentric realm - two main parts the west and east Interesting cultural differences - cars are mostly manual transmission -US is mostly automatic -smaller in Europe; huge in the US - tips and taxes are already included in the price (VAT) -in the US we pay tax on top of price -we pay a gratuity in addition to cost of service - like to drink…a lot -booze, coffee, tea (not much water) - they work less and have much more vacation -defined by law in some nations - 4 weeks of vacation at the very least - lunch is a big deal; dinner not so much - power outlets are different than in the US Basic facts about Europe - population of the continent -600 million people -11% of the world - 42 countries in a very small area -Europe is the smallest continent by area -3.9 million sq. miles (Europe) -3.8 million sq. miles (just US) - WWII massively changed the layout of Europe -both politically and geographically - technically, Europe is a peninsula of Asia - vast differences between East and West -past soviet states and Western culture - Ukraine is the largest country in area -Vatican City has the smallest area - Germany has the largest population - Highly Urbanized realm -75% of the population lives in an urban area - Human Civilization can find its roots as far back as 7000 BC in Europe -origin of modern history -very complex history Complexity of Europe - Europe contains 5% of the world’s land but has 20% of the worlds countries - Nations were formed as a result of war - Nationality: -protects you legally internationally -also makes you follow the laws of the state you are from -automatically given when you are born - you can gain dual-nationality through marriage or by expatriation Cultural Diversity - 49 different languages in 1 major Indo-European families - mostly Christian roots (product of the Crusades) -Secularism is on the rise -Catholic and Protestant tension -Islam increasing in South Eastern Europe - Economic disparity: -rich are in the west; poor are in the east (Slavic Nations) Economies in Europe - poorest Country in Europe is Moldova - average income per citizen $3,500 per year -Communist Economy -Former Soviet Territory(new country) -entire economy is based on Agriculture -land-locked - richest country in Europe is Luxembourg - Average income per citizen is $109,000 - small size in area and people = easier to manage - 2/3 are mostly computer workers and foreign nationals - government is very stable How is Europe Connected? - Economies and Political Networks - Complementarity: excess products and goods can be shared with others within the realm given the need - Britain for cars in Germany - Norway lumber, Greece cotton - Transferability: very easy to move goods via transport networks and infrastructure - small area (efficiency?) Climate - mostly mild climate types - decent precipitation all year round - cool to cold winter - warm to hot summers - generally temperate forests - both deciduous and Pine - similar to most of the climate in the Eastern US The Gulf Stream - moves heat form the tropics to the poles - moves water from FL to Europe - controls the European climate dramatically - warms air above the water through conduction - moderates climates - how we know it affects climate? - December temperatures average 42 degree F in London Physical Geographic Regions of Europe - Central Uplands - “the heart of Europe” - Alpine Mountains - Pyrenees to Balkan Mtn. - includes most of the Mediterranean - Westen Uplands - very old geographically - North European Lowlands - culturally diverse and complex Ancient Europe - after the last ice age, people started to move into Europe - predominantly from Asia and Africa - Neolithic:Birth of Urbanization - simple stone tools, spears, fire, domestication of animals - 10,000 BCE - Copper age: - simple shields, modest swords, axes, armor - 5000 BCE - Bronze age: - sailing, trade, navigation, stonehenge was built, writing developed - 3000 BCE - Iron age: - iron then steel - 1200 BCE to AD Greece: - rise of Science, Philosophy, Government, Art, formal writing/ mathematics - Origins of Western Government (Republic and Democracy) - City-State: a city that has its own government and which it controls the surrounding territory to form an independent state - Past Examples: Athens and Sparta - Current day examples: Washington DC, Mexico City, Vatican City, Singapore Roman Empire: - 117 AD - military strategy- excellent at fighting their enemies - created urban areas and trade routes - aqueducts, roads, Coliseum, buildings with plumbing, brick roads, standard currency - allowed control over their lands and people -vast infrastructure - Dominant Language, which majorly influenced culture, still to this day - e.g. “Romance Languages” - empire collapsed 5th century AD “Dark” Ages or “Middle” ages - times of German and Slavic people from Asia, the Middle East and Africa moved to Europe - rise of religion squashed science, the arts, philosophy… or - also includes the crusades - feudalist system- king > tenants- in-chief > knights (lords) > peasants European Crusades - “Military campaigns sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church during the middle ages” - 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries - began in 1095 - Pope Urban II’s plea for war with Muslim World (“Saracen”) - recovery of the Holy Land (Jerusalem) European Revolutions: Cultural and Political - colonialism: territorial development strategy where a territory is occupied by a foreign government - used military power to acquire foreign territories and resources - organization according to objectives related to resource acquisition and market expansion - often politically, religious, or racially driven - between 1400 and 1945, colonial movements were undertook by Europe all over the world - 1400-1800: - Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, and England were the main colonial powers - after 1800: - England had dominate over others European Control of the world, 1500-1950 Early Modern Europe - renaissance began in the early to mid 1400s to the early 1600s - a desire to expand knowledge -appreciation for science and the arts - the foundation of modern states began in this time period - as the population rose… monarchies, tribes began fighting over resources and land - a desire to formally recognize territory was demanded by the wealthy - cities began to grow rapidly, desire to establish control - agrarian Revolution - began in Europe in the 1750s - based on new agricultural innovations: -Mechanization and fertilizers - scientific and commercial agriculture -crop rotation -declining food prices - new crops (i.e. potato, tomato) - enabled increase food production (efficiency) - enabled sustained population increase