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## ASTR 1000-002: The Solar System, week 4 notes

by: Jenna Notetaker

58

7

2

# ASTR 1000-002: The Solar System, week 4 notes ASTR 1000-002

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Astronomy and Physics > ASTR 1000-002 > ASTR 1000 002 The Solar System week 4 notes
Jenna Notetaker

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Newton
COURSE
The Solar System (Lecture)
PROF.
Charles Danforth
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
2
WORDS
CONCEPTS
astronomy
KARMA
Free

## Popular in Astronomy and Physics

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1000-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Charles Danforth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see The Solar System (Lecture) in Astronomy and Physics at University of Colorado at Boulder.

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Date Created: 09/25/16
Astronomy Week 4 Isaac newton English polymath Invented differential calculus, new kind of telescope Turned physics into a science (gravity, Newtonian mechanics) How is motion measured? Position (distance) Speed (distance/time) Velocity (how fast in a direction) Acceleration  Acceleration­ change in velocity, speed, and direction  Momentum= mass x velocity Angular momentum= mass x velocity x radius Force­ something that changes a momentum  Torque= force x radius  Newton’s three laws of motion  1. Inertia­ an object in motion tends to continue in motion at a constant speed in a straight  line 2. F= MA (force accelerates a mass) 3. Action­reaction­ for every force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force Gravity­ the force that depends on gravitation or acceleration  Mass­ an intrinsic property of an object  Weight­ a force that depends on gravitation or acceleration Acceleration of gravity­ the acceleration of a falling object Angular momentum­ circling or turning momentum  Torque­ the type of force that can change an objects angular momentum  Free fall­ falling without resistance  Feel weightless in a free fall Conservation of momentum­ as long as there are no external forces, the total momentum of  interacting objects cannot change Conservation of angular momentum­ angular momentum can only be changed by a torque  Kinetic energy­ motion energy Radiative energy­ light energy Potential energy­ stored energy Thermal energy­ subgroup of kinetic energy Temperature­ measure the average kinetic energy of particles Gravitational potential energy (mass­energy)­ depends on an objects mass and how far it can fall  as a result of gravity, also a subgroup of potential energy Unbound orbits­ paths that bring an object close to another object just once Center of mass­ the point at which the two objects would balance if they were somehow  connected Earth accelerates towards the objects accelerating towards earth  The larger the semi­major axis, the longer the total orbit  Bound orbits­ closed happened repeatedly (circular, elliptical) Change the energy, change the orbit  All orbiters have the same orbital speed  Vcircular=  √ GM/r Vescape=  √ 2GM/r p 2 4 π 2 3                                                  NVK3L:  =       * a                                                                                          GM

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