ASTR 1000-002: The Solar System, week 4 notes
ASTR 1000-002: The Solar System, week 4 notes ASTR 1000-002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1000-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Charles Danforth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see The Solar System (Lecture) in Astronomy and Physics at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Astronomy Week 4 Isaac newton English polymath Invented differential calculus, new kind of telescope Turned physics into a science (gravity, Newtonian mechanics) How is motion measured? Position (distance) Speed (distance/time) Velocity (how fast in a direction) Acceleration Acceleration change in velocity, speed, and direction Momentum= mass x velocity Angular momentum= mass x velocity x radius Force something that changes a momentum Torque= force x radius Newton’s three laws of motion 1. Inertia an object in motion tends to continue in motion at a constant speed in a straight line 2. F= MA (force accelerates a mass) 3. Actionreaction for every force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force Gravity the force that depends on gravitation or acceleration Mass an intrinsic property of an object Weight a force that depends on gravitation or acceleration Acceleration of gravity the acceleration of a falling object Angular momentum circling or turning momentum Torque the type of force that can change an objects angular momentum Free fall falling without resistance Feel weightless in a free fall Conservation of momentum as long as there are no external forces, the total momentum of interacting objects cannot change Conservation of angular momentum angular momentum can only be changed by a torque Kinetic energy motion energy Radiative energy light energy Potential energy stored energy Thermal energy subgroup of kinetic energy Temperature measure the average kinetic energy of particles Gravitational potential energy (massenergy) depends on an objects mass and how far it can fall as a result of gravity, also a subgroup of potential energy Unbound orbits paths that bring an object close to another object just once Center of mass the point at which the two objects would balance if they were somehow connected Earth accelerates towards the objects accelerating towards earth The larger the semimajor axis, the longer the total orbit Bound orbits closed happened repeatedly (circular, elliptical) Change the energy, change the orbit All orbiters have the same orbital speed Vcircular= √ GM/r Vescape= √ 2GM/r p 2 4 π 2 3 NVK3L: = * a GM
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