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Psyc-2301 Chapter 4 Notes

by: Ema Notetaker

Psyc-2301 Chapter 4 Notes Psyc 2301

Ema Notetaker
Austin Community College
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About this Document

developing through the lifespan
Introduction to Psychology
Ziv Shafir
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ema Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2301 at Austin Community College taught by Ziv Shafir in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Austin Community College.

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Date Created: 09/25/16
Psychology 2301 – 9/15/16 & 9/20/16 Chapter 4 – Developing Through the Life Span  Infantile Amnesia – Forgets most of childhood (below age 1)  Brain Development o Nature – Born with something o Nurture – learn something  Motor Development (Tied to Maturation) – Biological growth processes. On average lift head at about 2 weeks, start to roll over at 3 months at 3 months, sit at 5.5 months on average, crawl at 6 months, stand at 11.5 months and walk at 12 months. (on average)  Cognition – all the mental activities that are associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering.  Piaget – Jean Piaget, Swiss psychologist, interested in how children think logically. o Schema – mental framework or a set of instructions that tells you how to behave.  Assimilation – incorporating new experiences into an existing schema.  Accommodation – adjust the schema to fit new experiences.  Stage Theories – o Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Typical Age Range Description of stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor Object Permanence – object Experiencing the world either exists or not. through senses and actions Stranger anxiety – Stranger (looking, hearing, touchingwariness. mouthing, and grasping) About 2 to about 6 or Preoperational Pretend Play – Makes them 7 years Representing things with think of things in others POV words and images; using Egocentrism – idea that we intuitive rather than logichave a hard time seeing reasoning. something from another’s POV. Theory of Mind - to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own. About 7 to 11 years Concrete Operational Conservation – the fact that a Thinking logical about quantity of a substance is concrete events; grasping conserved even if it changes. concrete analogies and Ex: pouring water from small, performing arithmetical wide cup to a tall long cup operations but same volume. Mathematical transformations – able to recognize 12-4 instantly rather than having to think for a few seconds about it. About 12 through Formal operational Abstract logic – if this, then Adulthood Abstract reasoning that. Potential for mature moral reasoning  Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Reasoning – Dealt with Morality  Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Stage (approximate Issue Description of Task age) Infancy (to 1 year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Toddlerhood (1-3 years) Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise and doubt their will to do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. Preschool (3-6 years) Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent. Elementary (6 years to Competence vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to puberty) inferiority tasks, or they feel inferior. Teenagers work at refining Adolescence (teen Identity vs. Role years to 20’s) Confusion a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adulthood (20’s Intimacy vs. Isolation Young adults struggle to form close-relationships to early 40’s) and to gain the capacity of intimate love, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Middle Adulthood (40’s Generativity vs. In middle age, people discover a sense of to 60’s) Stagnation contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack or purpose. 2 Late Adulthood (late Integrity vs. Despair Reflecting on his or her life, 60’s and up) an older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.  Attachment – an emotional tie between 2 individuals o Harlow (monkey study) – took infant monkey away from mothers and gave them artificial mothers, one mother made of wire and the other of cloth, Wire mother had food but, the cloth mother did not. Almost all monkeys went to the cloth mother showing that contact is more important between an infant and a caregiver. o Ainsworth (“Strange Situation” study) – set of separations between a mother and her infant. (to see how the child acted when the mother came and left)  Securely Attached – When the mother and child were together the child was just fine. When the mother left, the child was slightly concerned.  Insecure-Avoidant – When the mother was there, there was not much interaction between mother and child. When the mother left, the child did not sow emotion or seem to care at all. No emotion again when the mother came back.  Insecure-Ambivalent – When the mother left, they cried a lot. When the mom came back, the child sought physical comfort immediately. After a few seconds, they wanted nothing to do with the mother.  Parenting styles o Authoritarian – Strict rules, punish often, show minimal Warmth toward child, and child’s opinions are often shot down. o Permissive – Permits child to do anything, not many rules at all, no punishment, hands off, child often has a hard time with rules at an older age. o Authoritative – “Gold standard of parenting”, they have rules but encourage independent thoughts from child, show warmth to child, asks for child’s input, most likely to be raised in a securely attached household. 3


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