Bio 02. Week 5. Lecture Notes
Bio 02. Week 5. Lecture Notes Bio 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecilia Hernandez on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 002 at University of California - Merced taught by Dr. Kamal Dulai in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR BIOLOGY in Biological Sciences at University of California - Merced.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
BIO 02 LECTURE #8 –TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20 , 2016.TH Topics: 1) Types of Membrane Proteins 2) Proteins attached to the membrane 3) Para cellular vs. Transcellular Transport 1. Types of Membrane Proteins: Transporters- Pumps Na+ out and K+ in Example: Na+ pump Anchors- K+ ions leaves the cell Example: Integrin Receptors- Binds to the platelet-derived growth factor which causes the cell to grow and divide Example: the receptor known as PDGF platelet-derived growth factor Enzymes- Catalyzes the small signaling molecule Example: Adenylyl cyclase HINT: Most enzymes end with -ase Ion Channel- This channel allows K+ to leave the cell Example: K+ Leak Channel 2. Proteins attached to the membrane: Integral membrane proteins- Proteins which are attached to the lipid bilayer These proteins can be removed using detergents to disrupt the lipid layer Examples: Transmembrane, Membrane Associated, and Lipid-Linked Peripheral membrane proteins- The rest of the proteins can be removed from the lipid bilayer by protein- protein interactions When the proteins are released they leave the layer intact Examples: Protein- Attached 3. Para cellular vs. Transcellular Transport: Para cellular Transport- The substance goes across an epithelium which passes through the inside space of the cell Transcellular Transport- The substance passes through the cell also through two membranes called apical and basolateral membrane ND LECTURE #9 –THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 22 , 2016. Topics: 1) Energy 2) Enzymes 3) Catabolism & Anabolism 1. Energy: Second law of thermodynamics- The universe or an isolated system which the degree of disorder can ONLY increase It can change spontaneously in the direction that has the greatest probability A spontaneous process is considered when the movement is towards a disorder which requires a constant input of energy to reverse it Entropy- Measuring the amount of the system’s disorder The greater the disorder the greater the entropy. The system changes towards the greater entropy Cells take energy from the environment which can be in form of food, inorganic molecules, or light from the sun Heat increases the thermal motions of the molecules which causes an increase in entropy towards the environment First Law of thermodynamics- Energy can’t be created or destroyed The total amount of energy must be the same in the universe Turning the chemical energy into heat energy has caused the universe to be more disordered Example: Converting sunlight into energy in the chemical bonds of sugars and small organic molecules during photosynthesis 2. Enzymes: Accelerates or catalyzes a reaction It can also lower and block chemical reactions Catalysis controls the metabolism which is able to grow, survive, and reproduce. Catalyze: Consists of the speed and rate Obeys the second law of thermodynamics CANNOT force energetically unfavorable reactions Enzymes help reduce the amount to energy that is needed to initiate a spontaneous reaction 3. Catabolism & Anabolism: Catabolism: Breaking down food into very small molecules The molecules are then used as a source of energy for the cell or used as building blocks Energy (activated carrier molecule)Food Molecule (Energy) Energetically favorable reaction Oxidized food molecules Anabolism: Uses the energy from the catabolism in order to be able to synthesize the molecules that form the cell Energy (activated carrier molecule) molecule available in cell Energetically unfavorable reaction molecule released by cell (Energy)