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Chem 113, Chapter 2 Notes

by: Anto Vascones

Chem 113, Chapter 2 Notes CHM113

Marketplace > Arizona State University > Chemistry > CHM113 > Chem 113 Chapter 2 Notes
Anto Vascones

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About this Document

These are notes from chapter 2
General Chemistry 1
Shelly Hauck
Class Notes
acids and bases, oxidation, molecular formula, chemical formula, structural, ions
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anto Vascones on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM113 at Arizona State University taught by Shelly Hauck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter 2: 9/6/2016 Cation and anions Monatomic and polyatomic ions Ionic compounds - Recognizing them and - building a balanced molecular formulas give the exact number of atoms of each element in a compound empirical formulas give the lowest whole number ration of atoms of each element in a compound structural formulas show the order in which atoms are bonded (the connectivity) Oxidation Numbers: the atomic charge of a cation or anion in an ionic compound is also called its oxidation number for a molecular compound the atoms don’t have charges like in ionic compounds 1. pure elements are assigned zero for their oxidation number 2. ions have the oxidation number of their common charge anion- ide cation- ate 3. common oxidation numbers of H, F, and O o Hydrogen (H): i. +1 when bonded to nonmetal ii. -1 when bonded to a metal o Fluorine (F) is always -1 o Oxygen (O): iii. -2 in almost all compounds iv. -1 in peroxides v. Exception: +2 in OF2 4. Compounds and polyatomic ions o in a neutral compound, the sum of the oxidation numbers of all elements in the formula must equal zero o in polyatomic ion the sum of the oxidation numbers of all elements in the formula must equal the net charge on the ion o in general the more electronegative Acids and Bases - hydrogen cation (H+) also called the proton - hydroxide anion (OH-) Acid: substance that produces H+ in water - HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4 - HCl dissolves in water  H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) Base: substance that produces OH- in water - NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2 - NaOH dissolves in water  Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Binary acids: (hydrogen + a non metal) Hydro- “non-metal root”-ic acid Oxyacids: (hydrogen + a non-metal + oxygen) Name is based on the name of the name of the oxyanion: – per- -ate per- -ic acid – -ate -ic acid – -ite -ous acid – hypo- -ite hypo- -ous acid Memorize 7 strong acids Memorize 8 strong hydroxide bases Naming Inorganic Compounds  Molecular compounds are usually composed of nonmetals  The less electronegative atom is usually listed first (if it contains O and Cl, Br, or I, the O is written last)  If both elements are in the same group, the closer to the bottom of the table is named first  The ending on the more electronegative element is changed to -ide


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