week 6 notes
week 6 notes Chem 111
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kim Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111 at California State University Chico taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Science at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter 4: Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution - Electrolytes: substances that dissolve in water to produce conducting solutions of ions NaCl(s) → Na(aq) + Cl (aq) - Non electrolytes: substances that do not produce ions in aqueous solutions c12 O22 11s)c H12 22 11aq ) Strong electrolytes vs. Weak electrolytes Types of chemical reactions in aqueous solutions Pb ( O 3 aq )+2k, (aq)→2KN O 3(aq)+Pbl(s) Precipitation Reaction 2 Mg s +2HCl (aq →MgCl 2aq )+H 2(g) Oxidation Reduction (Redox) Reaction HCl aq +NaOH aq )→H O2 l)+NaCl (aq) Acid Base Neutralization Reaction Aqueous Reactions & Net Ionic Equations: Molecular Equation: Pb ( O 3)2aq )+2Kl (aq →2KN O 3 aq +Pbl (s) Ionic Equation: Pb 2+ (aq) + 2NO3- (aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2l- (aq) → 2K+(aq) + +2NO3- (aq) + Pbl2 (s) Spectator Ions : Pb 2+ (aq) + 2NO3- (aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2l- (aq) → 2K+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + Pbl2 (s) 2 Net Ionic Equation: Pb + (aq +2l− (aq)→Pbl 2s) Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines 1. A compound is probably soluble if it contains one of the following cations: Croup 1A cation: Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+ Ammonium ions: NH4+ 2. A compound is probably soluble if it contains one of the following anions: Halide: Cl-, Br-, I- Except: Ag+, Hg2 2+, Pb2+ compounds NO3- (nitrate), ClO4- (perchlorate), CH3CO2- (acetate) and SO4 2- (sulfate) Except: Sr2+, Ba2+, Hg2 2+, Pb2+ sulfates Acids, Bases and Neutralization Reactions: Acid (Arrhenius)- a substances that dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions H+ HA(aq) → H+(aq) + A-(aq) HCl (aq) → H+(aq) + Cl(aq) In water acids produce hydronium ions H3O+ Base (Arrhenius): A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide ions OH- → MOH(aq) M+(aq) + OH- (aq) → NaOH(aq) Na+(aq) + OH- (aq) Ammonia is weakly basic because it reacts to a small extent with water to yield ammonium and hydroxide ions Binary Acids: HCl – hydrochloric acid HBr – hydrobromic HF – hydrofluoric acid Ous – ite Ic – ate When dissolved in water LiOH behaves as a base that forms Li+ and OH- ions These acid/ base neutralization reactions are double replacement reactions just like the precipitation reactions Solution stoichiometry → aA+bB cC+dD Volume of solution of A Moles of A→ Moles of B→ Volume of solution of B Molarity of A Mole ratio between A&B Molarity of B
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