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Biology 1510- Week 5 Notes- Genetics- Gene Regulation, DNA, etc.

by: Sayali Punyarthi

Biology 1510- Week 5 Notes- Genetics- Gene Regulation, DNA, etc. BIOL 1510

Marketplace > Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus > Biology > BIOL 1510 > Biology 1510 Week 5 Notes Genetics Gene Regulation DNA etc
Sayali Punyarthi


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About this Document

These notes cover the basics of DNA and gene regulation of processes from DNA to proteins.
Biological Principles
Jung Choi
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sayali Punyarthi on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1510 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Jung Choi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles in Biology at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Genetics Module- Module 2: DNA  2.01 DNA as the basis of inheritance o DNA is the genetic materials  Frederick Griffith’s Experiment o The rough strain (grown in a rough shape) doesn’t do anything to mice- immune system gets rid of it o The smooth strain (smooth protective coat)- prevents the disease from attacking the immune system o If you mix the smooth and rough together: the mouse dies: transforming bacteria  Avery, McLeod, McCarty: o Transforming substance is DA  If you transform DNA then it doesn’t become infectious= so must be DNA that is transforming  Hershey-Chase Experiment o Radio-label technique o DNA is the item that gets into the cell o Phage (virus) DNA is the one that actually affects the cell  Avery + H-C: DNA must be the genetic material  Structure o Watson and Crick: put it all together o Chargaff’s Rules:  Purines = pyrimidine  Adenine = thymine  Cytosine = Guanine o Rosalind Franklin: X-Ray Crystallography  Determined double helix structure  Adenine and Thymine: make two bonds together  Guanine and Cytosine: make three hydrogen bonds- requires more energy to break up bond  Antiparallel Structure o Phosphate group + 5 carbon sugar + hydroxyl + base o 5’ phosphate attaches to 3’ OH to create the backbone o Antiparallel: one strand runs in the opposite direction o DNA polar: because phosphate group and hydroxyl group o Meselson-Stahl Experiment:  Conservative: one old molecule and one new molecule  Semi-conservative: break it in half: one new molecule on one side and another new molecule on the other side  Dispersive replication: breaks up the original molecule into pieces : little bits and pieces in a random situation  DNA synthesis: o Polarity of DNA matters: o Two things that DNA polymerase has to have:  Can’t add if it doesn’t have something to pair with  Matches Bases o Must have a 3’ OH to add to o Source of energy involved in catalyzing the reaction part of dictates in what direction the DNA grows  Breaks off two of the phosphate groups and catalyzes energy to combine 5’ to 3’ end: creates a phosphodiester bond o Must be template (base paired) and must start from an existing “primer”. The energy used to catalyze this reaction comes from the phosphates associated with the incoming nucleotide o DNA strand is antiparallel: opposite directions o DNA can only add a nucleotide to an existing 3’ end  Opens up the origin of replication: specific location where the DNA double helix is opens  Primase creates RNA primer: synthesizes a 3’ end so DNA polymerase can synthesize at a 3’ end o Lagging strand: literally slower: because it has to create a new primer to start over in order to have 3’ start: okazaki fragments get linked back together by ligands  Joined back together o Primase doesn’t need a 3’ OH to add a RNA nucleotide o Origin of replication: where the DNA synthesis starts: a lot of A-T bonds: because takes less energy to break bonds  Enzymes: o Helicases unwind the DNA double helix o Primase makes an RNA primer as a starting point  Adds RNA nucleotides: RNA gets replaced later o DNA polymerase connects new complementary bases  Removes RNA primer and adds DNA bases o Ligase attaches Okazaki fragments from the lagging strand together


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