9/19-9/23 art history notes!!
9/19-9/23 art history notes!! ART 2350
Popular in Art History Survey I
Popular in Art History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tara Gardner on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2350 at University of North Texas taught by Mickey Abel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey I in Art History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
****NARMER PALAT IMPORTANT AND WILL PROBS BE ON THE TEST***** Iconography o white crown of upper Egypt o Red crown of lower Egypt o Double crown of unified Egypt o Eye of horas o Falcon-the god of horus Once again, circles have semblance of eternal life/no beginning-no end. o In Egypt, also symbolic of the sun Just like in Mesopotamia, property markers are important and give us information about those who own them Sarcophagus Mummifying the soul-less and organ-less body. Pharaohs body tends to be the "house" of the soul o The soul leaves and makes the journey around and under the Nile, but it needs a house to come back to and rest They build statues in the pharaoh's likeness o It is important that none of the pieces fall off This leads to arms/legs/etc are often attached to the body as opposed to being posed in a way that allowed for a lot of extended limbs o Khafre, Giza, is one of the more famous Seated on a platform-like throne covered in storytelling symbols ***Diorite: stone that is very slightly translucent ***Metaphysical: something beyond physical (spiritual) Allows the "light of the gods" to shine through it Gives the illusion that the statue is glowing Women in ancient egypt Women have a slightly different ranking than men o Pharaoh's wife still shown in an idealized way o Has some variance in her pose--indicative of showing affection/support o Often soft/less rigid in depictions Canon of Proportions Whereas in modern art the bodily proportions are based off the head, Egyptian proportions are based off the closed fist This canon of proportion changes based on different cultures. o Consider: is there any significance to this? Seated Scribe, 2494 BCE People at the lower rankings are given more realistic (read: less idealized) bodies. o Soft/painted/natural poses There's scale between absolute rigid and completely natural o the more rigid the more high-ranking Temples Temples on the east side (Tombs on the west side) o All doors face the Nile (temple doors face west) Have to pass between two pylons (billboard like walls) before entering the temple proper Temples divided into various spaces arranged hieratically o Direct route to the innermost temple in order to provide ease of access for high-ranking officials The smallest room (alter in the shrine) contains the axis mundi--a pole/post representing the spiritual connection between the heavens/earth/underworld (vertical movement) The temple also contains open courts, which are available to everyone o Hypostyle hall--post and lintel system Appears as rows and rows of columns Impedes vision and sense of community, reduces holding capacity The innermost sanctums could also be circumnavigated by the people of lesser rank Decoration Flower capitals--flared out column capstones Bud capitals--tapered in column capstones Clerestory--a row of decorative windows that allow passage of light into the interior of the temple Egyptians depicted everything to show it's perfect side o Causes interesting perspectives and alignment of objects when depicted in murals Virtually every surface covered with images or hieroglyphics o Pylons often decorated in giant, larger than life images Probably painted very brightly in order to be seen from far away Southern temples Temples actually built into the banks of the Nile due to lack of space o Cave like structures that go back into side of the mountain Sometimes pylons carved directly into the bank **If all the funds are going into the burials of the pharaohs, it's not going to the people** Tombs Step pyramids: predecessors to pyramids, resemble ziggurats o Begin with a mastaba built under the entire pyramid where the body is actually buried. Anybody can have a mastaba Only important people get pyramids built on top of their mastabas o Sometimes step pyramids are the site of multiple burials Pyramids are for the most elite of all o They can be sealed from the outside o Never meant to be opened Tombs are not singular buildings, but part of a network of ritualistic spaces in the same manner as a temple Sarcophagus masks Like Russian nesting dolls there are several sarcophaguses nested inside each other, with the innermost being the most fantastic King tut's is famous because it the most well preserved one we have Book of the dead Shown in many forms all over Egypt (wall painting, etc) Depicts the weighing of the heavy heart o Weigh the heart of the deceased against a feather o If the heart is worthy, it will weigh less than the feather, and they will be allowed to progress to the underworld o Indicative of the belief that supernatural forces are at work Artificats Finally seeing stones inlaid in gold o the ability of the artisans is improving with time Importance of the scarab in Egyptian mythology Dioramas Small depictions of objects taken into the tomb in place of the real thing Can depict houses, servants, armies, boats, etc. Rosetta Stone The only reason we know how to read Egyptian hieroglyphics Has greek, egyptian, and demotic on it MINOANS Knossos-palace on Crete o post and lintle construction columns made of wood--every column a tree trunk tapered in at the bottom were the trees importable? did deforestation occur? o once you're in the complex, you move from Room to Room, limiting the amount of exterior doors o weather temperate-lots of windows open to the elements Instead had to worry about earthquakes has been rebuilt several times over walls are highly decorated walls (frescos) not fortified-not worried about protecting themselves o They were on a frickin island boats predominate in this culture Throne Room very communal, but still highlight the throne, & the fact that one person is in charge o contains a bowl that could have been used for water or fire o Ritualistic space murals almost like wallpaper wall murals Decorative rather than narrative confined within registers/panels many are greatly reconstructed in now archeologists would like them to be, extrapolated from the teeny-tiny bits we do have more women pictured than men o gives us an idea of their makeup/hairstyle/clothes Costumes have been reconstructed by archeologists o Probably imported gold for jewelry o women often depicted as bare breasted snake goddess Many, many depictions Holding snakes, either an owl or a cat (both animals that catch snakes) on her head snakes important to the minoan culture on account of Crete is covered with snakes Her outfit is repeated in many art prices Bull Jumping fresco some kind of weird leapfrogging/rodeo/running with the bulls activity going on the women, once again, are in positions of power o Men are the ones doing the dangerous act of leaping the bull minoans a peaceful female culture Pottery kamarus ware o held water, wine, or olive oil o Art wraps around the pot-not confined by registers harvester vase o cannot stand on its own, needs to be held by a hole or pedestal o carved from stone-very high level object