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BIOL 1108 UGA Bio 1108

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Dr. Farmer
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by das39735 Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1108 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Farmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Biology First Semester Exam Study online 1. The 5 phases of A repeating sequence of cellular growth 12.Compare and Homozygous individuals have two of cell cycle are? and division during the life of an contrast the same alleles. This can be either organism. The phases are: homozygous and two dominant alleles (HH) or two G1 - cell growth and carries out routine heterozygous recessive alleles (hh). Heterozyhous functions individuals have one dominant and S - copy of DNA is made one recessive allele (Hh). G2 - growth and preparation for cell 13.Compare covalent covalent- form when 2 or more atoms division bonds, ionic bonds, share electrons. covalent bonds are Mitosis - nuclear division and hydrogen bonds very strong ionic- form when atoms Cytokinesis - cytoplasm divides gain or lose electrons. have opposite 2. animals, eukaryotes charges. hydrogen- weak chemical prokaryotes or attraction b/t polar molecules eukaryotes? 14.Compare diploid Diploid cells (body cells) have twice 3. Are the daughter daughter cells are diploid cells and haploid as many chromosomes as haploid cells haploid or cells. Are somatic cells (gametes). diploid cells (autosomes) diploid or haploid? 4. arm on a supports the body tube microscope does Are gamete cells diploid or haploid? what? 15.define cytokenisis the cytoplasm of the cell is divided in 5. bacteria, prokaryotes half, forming two seperate cells prokaryotes or eukaryotes? 16.Define difussion? movement of a high concentration to 6. base on a suports the base a low concentration. Many different substances move by diffusion. microscope does what? 17.Define facilitated Uses carrier proteins to carry specific diffusion? substances such as amino acids and 7. body tube on a maintains the correct distance between microscope does the eyepiece and the objecive sugars across the membrane. what? 18.Define ion Transport protein in the membrane 8. coarse objective moves the stage up and down for gross channels? that allows ions to pass through. on a microscope adjustments 19.define mitosis the nucleus of a cell divides in two does what? 20.Define osmosis? The diffusion of water across the 9. Comapre and Spermatogenesis is the formation of membrane. contrast sperm cells. It results in 4 haploid sperm 21.Describe a there are 2 groups: the experimental spermatogenesis cells. Oogenesis is the formation of egg and oogenesis cells. It results in 1 haploid egg cell and 3 controlled group and the control group. The experiment experimental group receives some polar bodies that die. type of experimental treatment. The 10.Compare and Dominant alleles were those that were control group DOES NOT receive contrast expressed if present. Recessive alleles experimental treatment. This way dominant and were hidden in the presence of a they can compare the results. recessive alleles. dominant trait and were only expressed if there were two recessive alleles. 22.Describe the active movement of large substances INTO transport method: a cell by vesicle 11.Compare and Genotype is the genetic makeup of an endocytosis contrast organism. The alleles that an individual 23.Describe the active movement of large substances OUT of genotype and inherits (ex. PP, Pp or pp). The phenotype phenotype is the physical appearance that results transport method: the cell by vesicle exocytosis from the genotype (ex. purple, white, tall, 24.Describe the active Sodium-potassium pump is short, hairy, etc.) transport method: transports 3 sodium ions OUT of the sodium potassium cell and two potassium ions INTO the pump cell 25.diaphragm on a controls the light that passes through th31.Draw a pedigree microscope does object that shows 1) what? Recessive, x- linked, 2) 26.Distinguish Monohybrid crosses are only comparing 2 monohybrid versions of 1 trait (ex. tall vs. short). Theominant, autosomal, 3) crosses from Punnett square for a monohybrid cross dihybrid has four boxes. Dihybrid crosses compare Recessive, autosomal. crosses. How two traits (ex. tall, purple vs. short, many traits are white). The Punnett square for a they looking at? monohybrid cross has 16 boxes. 27.Draw a diagram of DNA 32.Draw a picture replication. Label the showing the direction of replication fork, leading strand, water movement by osmosis into lagging strand and the parental or out of a cell and its impact strands. on cell size. 28.Draw a diagram Include if the cell of the cell cycle. is an isotonic, Label the 5 hypertonic or phases and hypotonic show what is solution and occurring in what will each phase. happen to the Show which cell. ones are considered 33.Draw and label a diagram of DNA. interphase. Label the sugar- phosphate 29.Draw a backbones and eukaryotic cell and label its the nitrogen bases. organelles. 34.Draw AND label a pair of homologous chromosomes. Label the chromatids, 30.Draw a model of centromere and a Chlorine atom, homologous label the chromosomes. nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons. Be sure to tell what charge they 35.Draw and label carry (+ - or the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide. neutral) 36.Draw and label 41.Find the amino DNA-----mRNA-----tRNA-----Amino the bits of a acid formed from Acid bacteria. each of the ATA UAU AUA Tyrosine following DNA GTT CAA GUU Glutamine codes: ATA-GTT- AAA UUU AAA Phenylalanine AAA-AAT. AAT UUA AAU Leucine Remember you must make the mRNA copy by transcription. 42.fine adjustments brings the image into focus 37.Draw and label on a microscope the sketch of does what? DNA crossing 43.Following Following DNA replication, if all goes over. replication, how do well, the two new strands should be the two new DNA identical to the original strand. Each molecules compare new DNA molecule is composed of one to the origional new strand and one original strand. DNA molecule 44.fungi, prokaryotes eukaryotes or eukaryotes? 45.How are images flipped upside down. images are changed when magnified so they look larger. also if 38.Draw simple viewed through a you move the object to the right it looks sketches of the microscope? like it moves to the left sates of meiosis 46.How can a female Females can exhibit a sex-linked trait on a diagram exhibit a sex linked if both X chromosomes are affected. and label the key trait? events of each phase. 47.How did Mendel When two different alleles occur determine the together, one of them may be LAW OF completely expressed while the other DOMINANCE? may have no observable effect on the organism's appearance. The one expressed is the dominant trait. The only way a recessive trait could be expressed is if the person has two copies of a recessive gene. 39.Draw the mitosis phases 48.How do enzymes they decrease the activation energy of and label the key help speed up the reaction events of each chemical phase. reactions? 49.How does a uses two lenses to look at a specimen, compound light ocular and objective microscope work? 50.How does a electrons pass through a specimen, electron forming a image of the specimen on a microscope work? fluorescent screen 40.eyepiece on a magnifies 10x microscope does what? 51.How does Independent assortment occurs 60.If an organism Diploid=20 then haploid=10. independent during Metaphase I & II of meiosis. has a diploid Haploid=7 then diploid=14. assortment of It is when chromosomes line up number of 20, chromosomes during randomly at the cell's equator. what is its meiosis and random Random fertilization just means haploid fertilization of that it is completely random as to number? If an gametes add to genetic which sperm will fertilize the egg. organism's variation within a haploid number species? is 7, what is its 52.How does mutation Mutations can introduce new diploid number? introduce new genetic genetic combinations and new 61.Interpret the pH acid is below 7 neutral is 7 base is above variation? traits. scale of 0 to 14. 7. OR acid<7, bases>7 and neutral=7. Where do acids 53.How is the cell cycle Checkpoint proteins control the controlled? cell cycle. They act as "traffic and bases go on the pH scale? lights" to tell the cell when and if it is ready to continue to the next 62.Label the parts phase. of a microscope. 54.How many alleles for 2 each gene (character) does an individual have? many daughter ends with 2 daughter cells cells result from mitosis? 56.How many PAIRS of Humans have 23 chromosome chromosomes do pairs. 22 pair of autosomes and 1 human cells have? pair of sex chromosomes. How many of the pairs 63.light source on a provides light for viewimg the object are autosomes and microscope does how many pairs are what? sex chromosomes? 64.List the Advantage - faster process and uses less many TOTAL 46 advantages and energy because they don't have to find a chromosomes do disadvantages of mate or make gametes. humans have asexual Disadvantages - NO GENETIC reproduction VARIATION, all offspring are clones and 58.Identify products and NaCl->Na+Cl reactants in the Reactants->Products therefore can die off if one is affected by something because they all have exactly following chemical the same genetic makeup equation: NaCl- >Na+Cl 65.List the Advantage - Genetic variation, all 59.Identify this lab advantages and offspring are different genetically and disadvantages of therefore can evolve/adapt to different equipment. sexual situations. Also, it's fun. reproduction Disadvantages - Slower process and uses lots of energy because have to find a mate and make gametes. 66.Make a chart of venn diagram that make that 79.Name the 4 prophase, metaphase, anaphase, compares mitosis and meiosis. chart! phases of telophase Particularly duaghter cells, type of mitosis. daughter cells, number of 80.nosepiece on a holds the objective lenses ad turned to chromosomes and which cells undergo microscope does rotate lenses mitosis, which meiosis. what? 67.Meiosis: anaphase 1 homologues 81.objective lenses usually magnify 4x, 10x, 40x chromosomes on a microscope move to does what? opposite sides of the cell 82.Organisms are atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, highly organized organ systems, organisms, populations, 68.Meiosis: anaphase 2 centromers at various levels. communities, ecosystems, biomes divide and Arrange these (rainforest, desert, tundra) chromeatids levels in move to increasing levels opposite sides of complexity of the cell starting with 69.Meiosis: metaphase 1 pairs of atoms. homologuos 83.plants, eukaryotes chromosomes prokaryotes or move to the eukaryotes? center of the cell 84.stage clips on a hold the slide into position microscope does 70.Meiosis: metaphase 2 chromosomes what? line up in the 85.stage on a supports the slide middle of the cell microscope does what? 71.Meiosis: prophase 1 chromosomes become visible, 86.Use a Punnett square to nuclear envolope predict the breaks down, results of crossing over monohybrid and occurs dihybrid genetic crosses. In the 72.Meiosis: prophase 2 new spindle following forms around examples, the predict the chromosomes genotypic and 73.Meiosis: teleophase 1 and cytokinesis chromosomes phenotypic gather at the ratios of the poles of the cell offspring in each and cytoplasm cross. T=tall, divides t=short, G=Green, 74.Meiosis: telophase 2 and cytokinesis nuclear envelope forms g=yellow. and cytoplasm divides 75.metric length meters 76.metric liquid volume liters 77.metric mass grams 78.metric temperature celsius 87.Use a Punnett 97. What are an organisms whose cells have a square to eukaryotes and nucleus. can be multicelled or single predict the what are their celled. Have organelles that carry out results of these cells like? specific functions. non-Mendelian 98. What are Any changes in the genetic material crosses. Predict mutations and (DNA). A change in the DNA of an the genotypic how might they organism is likely to cause a deficiency and phenotypic cause genetic or in some other way cause the person's rations of the disorders? body to react abnormally offspring in each cross. SHOW 99. what are nucleic Long chains of nucleotides. found in all acids and what is cells. two types are DNA and RNA YOUR WORK! the subunit 88.Using a periodic C = 6 protons, 6 neutrons and 6 electrons (monomer) of table, determine Na = 11 protons, 11 neutrons and 11 nucleic acids? the number of electrons 100.What are Single celled organism that lacks a protons, Cl = 17 protons, 18 neutrons and 17 electrons and electrons prokaryotes and nucleus and other internal what are their compartments. Bacteria is the ONLY neutrons of an K = 19 protons, 20 neutrons and 19 element. electrons cells like? prokaryotes. P = 15 protons, 16 neutrons and 15 101.What are Proteins are large molecules formed by electrons proteins and linked smaller subunits called amino H = 1 protons, 0 neutrons and 1 electrons what are their acids. N = 7 protons, 7 neutrons and 7 electrons subunits O = 8 protons, 8 neutrons and 8 electrons (monomers)? 89.Wha tis DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA is the 102.What are some structure and functions of cell and what role genetic material that contains the functions of membranes (phospholipid bilayer), does it have in instructions for all functions of the lipids? stores energy inheritance? cell/organism. DNA is passed from one 103.What are some collagen is found in skin, ligaments, generation to the next. functions of tendons, and bonds. antibodies help 90.What 3 parts do Cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, proteins? your body defend agaisnt infection. all cells have? cytoskeleton hemoglobin carries oxygen form your lungs to body tissues, enzymes promote 91.What are 3 parts Sugar (deoxyribose), Phosphate group, of a DNA and a nitrogen containing base (either chemical reactions (act as a catalyst). nucleotide adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine) 104.what are the 2 XX 92.What are A set of three nucleotides bases found on female chromosomes anticodons? the tRNA. It is complementary to the codons on the mRNA. 105.What are the 3 1) all living things are made of one or 93.What are organic compounds made of carbon, main ideas of cell more cells. 2) cells are the basic units of carbohydrates hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the theory? structure and function in organisms. 3) and what is the porportion of 1:2:1 Monosaccharides are all cells arise from existing cells basic subunit the monomers. 106.What are the 3 growth, development and repair (monomer) of reasons for carbohydrates? organisms to 94.what are a force that joins atoms undergo cell chemical bonds division? 95.What are a process during which chemical bonds 107.What are the 4 carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids types of organic chemical between atoms are broken and new ones reactions? are formed, producing one or more compounds different substances. (macromolecules) found in living 96.What are A set of three nucleotide bases on the things? condons? mRNA. Each codon corresponds to one amino acid. 108.what are the 7 living things are organized into cells 119what did found out that cells make up everypart of characteristics living things reproduce Schleiden do? plants shared by all living things use energy 120what did found out cells make up every part of different living things maintain homeostasis Schwann do? animals things living things pass traits to the next generation 121what did von first to view living cells (microorganisms in living things evolve Leeuwenhoek pond water, teeth scrapings, blood). He is do? considered the Father of Microbiology living things respond to their enviroment 122what do plant cell walls, central vacuole, chloroplast 109.What are the Do not have food or drinks in the lab. wear five lab safety safety goggles when directed. be very cells have that rules? careful when handling sharp instruments. animals dont? do not cut anything while holding it in 123What does Movement of a substance from an area of your hand. keep area neat "down the high concentration to an area of low 110.what are the XY concentration concentration. males gradient" mean? chromosomes 124what does DNA stores hereditary information, RNA 111.What are the milli, centi, deci, (base unit), deka, hecto, metric kilo DNA do and used in manufacturing of proteins prefixes from what does RNA do smallest to largest? 125What does DNA helicase opens the double helix by 112.What are the Adenine-Thymine (A=T) DNA helicase breaking the hydrogen bonds that connect names of the 4 Guanine-Cytosine (G=C) do during to the bases. DNA nitrogen bases of DNA and replication? how do they 126What does DNA polymerase add nucleotides to the pair up? DNA original strand of DNA, according to base polymerase do pair rules. Only adds to 3' ends 113.What are the Polarity: doesn't share electrons equally, properties of Hydrogen bonding, Cohesion (surface during DNA replication? water? tension), adhesion, Stores energy (heat) and solvent of life 127What factors temperature, pH 114.What are the Square=Male affect the rate symbols for a Circle=Female of enzyme activity? male and female on a 128what is a number of protons pedigree? atomic 115.What cellulose in plants and chitin (eg. number carbohydrates exoskeletons of cockroaches, lobsters, etc.)129what is a hypothesis- an educated guess that must be are used as hypothesis, testable structural theory theory- a set of hypothesis that have been materials in tested and confirmed many times by many living things? scientist 116.what carbs are starch, glucose 130what is a the independent is the factor that has used for independent changed, the dependent is what gets energy variable and a measured dependent 117.What did Gregor mendel was an Austrian monk who Gregor Mendel studied pea plants to see how traits are variable learn about passed from one generation to the next. He 131What is a A photo of the chromosomes in a dividing inheritance found that some traits are dominant and karyotype and cell that shows the chromosomes arranged patterns in the other are recessive. He discovered alleles why is it used? by size. It can be used to identify garden pea? which are the copy of genes from a parent. chromosome abnormalities like Down's Syndrome. 118.what did first to see cells (dead cells from a cork) Hooke do? 132.What is active Active transport is the movement of a 146.What is protein Protein synthesis is the 2 step process of transport and substance across the cell membrane synthesis? making proteins. The first step is what is the against its concentration gradient. It transcription (DNA -> RNA). The second energy source? requires energy in, usually in the form of step is translation (RNA -> proteins). ATP. [Low]->[High] 147.What is RNA? single strand, uses the bases A,U,G,C 133.what is ATP used its a molecule that stores energy. cell and has the sugar ribose for? need a steady supply of ATP to function 148.What is rRNA rRNA (ribosomial RNA) is the form that 134.What is binary Form of asexual reproduction that and its makes up part of the structure of the fission? Do produces identical offspring. Used in function? ribosomes prokaryotes or prokaryotes (bacteria). 149.What is sickle autosomal, recessive; abnormally shaped eukaryotes use cell anemia? red blood cells this method of 150.what is the number of protons+neutrons cell reproduction? atomic mass 151.What is the Homologues chromosomes share similar 135.what is biology the study of life difference traits, shape, and size. Chromatids are 136.What is cancer Cancer is uncontrolled growth of a cell. between each side of the chromosome. and how is the The checkpoint proteins of the cell have chromosomes cell cycle a mutation and are not working properly and different so the cell will continue to grow and chromatids? between normal divide until a tumor is formed. 152.What is the encloses the cell and controls what may cells and function of the or may not enter and leave. Composed of cancerous cells? cell membrane? a phosphlipid bilayer 137.What is central Central Dogma: DNA -> RNA -> Protein dogma? or DNA codes for RNA and RNA codes 153.What is the stores water and other substances, plant function of the cells for proteins. central vacuole? 138.What is Crossing-over is when chromosomes 154.What is the Use light energy to make carbohydrates, crossing-over exchange genetic information across and how does it sister chromatids. It means that each function of the photosynthesis occurs here in plants. chloroplast? contribute to gamete produced will be slightly genetic different, thus leading to genetic 155.What is the provides interior framework for the cell. variation? variation. Occurs during Prophase I. function of the Composed of protein fibers including 139.What is DNA? double strand, uses the bases A,T,G,C cytoskeleton? actin fibers, microtubules and intermediate fibers. and has the sugar deoxyribose 140.What is downs results in 3 chromosomes on the 21rst 156.What is the Extensive system of internal membranes function of the that move proteins and other substances syndrome? position (trisomy 21) endoplasmic through the cell. 141.What is sex-linked (X-linked), recessive; failure reticuliam? hemophilia? of blood to clot 157.What is the Set of flattened, membrane bound sacs 142.What is autosomal, dominant; deterioration of function of the that serve as the packaging and Huntington's brain tissue golgi appartus? distribution center of the cell. Disease? 158.What is the small, spherical organelles that contain 143.what is meiosis a form of cell division that halves the function of the the cell's digestive enzymes. number of chromosomes when forming lysosomes? sex cell gametes (egg and sperm) 159.What is the harvests energy from organic compounds 144.What is mRNA mRNA (messenger RNA) is the form function of the to make ATP. and its function? that carries the instructions for making mitochondria? proteins and is made during transcription. 160.What is the the brain or control center of the cell. function of the Controls all functions of the cell and 145.What is passive Movement across the cell membrane nucleus? hoses the DNA. Enclosed by the nuclear transport? that DOES NOT require energy from the membrane. cell. From [High]->[Low], Down the concentration gradient. 161.What is the Structure where proteins are made. 173.Who are Franklina and Wilkins discovered that X ray function of the Franklin and diffraction showed DNA to be a helix with ribosomes? Wilkins? two or three chains of nucleotides. 162.What is the a small sac that transports substances 174.Who are Watson and Crick discovered the structure of function of the in the cellSmall, membrane bound sac Watson and DNA (double helix with phosphates and vesicles? that transports substances in the cell. Crick? sugars on the sides of the ladder and 163.What is the A double layer of phospholipids that nitrogen pairs as the steps of the ladder) phospholipid arrange so that the heads face the 175.who gregor the father of genetics bilayer? interior and exterior of the cell and the mendel? tails are on the inside of the membrane. 176.Who is Chargraff discovered the base pairing A=T 164.What is the role Spindles are cell structures made up of Chargraff? G=C of the spindle and both centrioles and individual 177.Why are Males only have one X chromosome. So, if spindle fibers? microtuble fibers that move males more they receive an allele for a disorder from their chromosomes apart during mitosis likely to mother, they do not have another X 165.what is the make observations inherit an X- chromosome to mask the recessive allele and scientific method ask a question linked they will have the disorder. form a hypothosis condition? expirementation 178.Why do cells cells remain small so that it is faster and collect and anylyze data remain small easier to transport things across them. if draw conclusions in size? they were really big it would take longer to 166.What is tRNA tRNA (transfer RNA) is the form that transport and its function? carries amino acids 179.Why is The pace of evolution increases as the level 167.What is turners results in females only having on x genetic of genetic variation increases. If we were all syndrome? chromosome (45,X). variation clones, the pace of evolution would slow. essential for 168.What takes place RNA polymerase binds to DNA and survival and during unwinds and separates the two strands. transcription? RNA polymerase then adds and evolution? connects complementary RNA 180.Write the C=Carbon, Na=Sodium, Cl=Chlorine, nucleotides until it reaches a stop name of these K=Potassium, P=Phosphorous, signal. mRNA is made, occurs inside elements C, H=Hydrogen, N=Nitrogen and O=Oxygen the nucleus. Na, Cl, K, P, H, N and O 169.What takes place mRNA leaves nucleus and goes into during cytoplasm. mRNA binds to ribosome. translation? First tRNA brings in the first amino acid. Each codon (set of three bases) codes for one amino acid. tRNA continues bringing in amino acids and connecting them until it reaches a stop codon. 170.What type of Hydrogen bonds hold nitrogen bases bond holds the together. nitrogen bases Covalent bonds hold sugar-phosphate together? What backbones together. type of bond holds the sugar- phosphate backbone together? 171.When does During Prophase I crossing-over occur? 172.When does DNA During synthesis (S) phase of the cell replicate? cycle (before meiosis begins) BIOL/1108   Study Guide  Lab Exam 2  Bacteria (Lab 7) Bacteria Lab Key Points:  Lack membrane bound organelles   Bacteria are unicellular   Not all bacteria are pathogens (organisms that make people sick)  Bacteria mostly helpful but some are harmful  Only 1% of know Bacteria make people sick  Bacteria responsible for: o Aiding in digestion o Making yogurt and cheese o Cleaning wastewater o Creating certain antibiotics o Used in making some pesticides Bacterial Structures:  All Cells Have these structures in common o Plasma membrane: o Cytoplasm: o Cytoskeleton: o DNA: o Ribosomes  Three structures that separate internal contents from outside world o Capsule: o Cell Wall: o Plasma Membrane:  Other structures include: o Flagella: o Cilia: o Pili:  Bacterial DNA is one circular piece  Do not have a nucleus; DNA forms dense ball  o Nucleoid:    Reproduction: o Binary Fission:   o Conjugation:   Can Share plasmids (other pieces of circular DNA)  o Evolve quickly with this method o Can cause antibiotic resistance to spread quickly Bacteria Shape  Bacilli (rod Shaped)                      Cocci (round and ball like)   Spirillia (cork­screw shaped)   For bacteria that colonize, the following prefixes are added:  o Strepto (long chains) o Staphylo (clusters)  o Diplo:  (pairs)  Gram­Positive & Gram­Negative Bacteria  Gram­Positive: o Round­shaped  Staphylococcus  Streptococcus o  Rod­shaped  Bacillus   Gram­Negative o Spiral­shaped  Spirillum volutans  o Rod­shaped  Escherichia coli   Pseudomonas aeruginosa  Cyanobacteria    Known as blue­green algae   Invented photosynthesis  Take energy from the sun, a few inorganic materials (water and carbon  dioxide) and convert them into fuel and materials for life’s processes  Types in our lab included: Nostoc and Saprolegnia Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria  All organisms need nitrogen to build their proteins and DNA.  Plants often rely on nitrogen­fixing bacteria to convert the nitrogen in the  soil to a form that they can use.   Some plants even have special chambers on their roots (root nodules) to  house these bacteria, this way animals can get nitrogen from plants eaten  Shown in the lab were Rhizobium, a root nodule nitrogen­fixer and the  nitrogen fixing Anabaena (also a cyanobacterium). Protists (Lab 8) Protists Lab Key Points   Eukaryotes   Most Unicellular but some Multicellular (Brown Kelp)  Some Heterotrophic, some are Autotrophic, and some are Mixotrophic  Some colonized some are not  No single trait to unify or separate protists from other eukaryotic Kingdoms  polyphyletic (evolutionary relationships vary between animals, plants and  themselves) Structure of Protists  Some groups may be surrounded by shells or test of silica or calcium  carbonate  Physical appearance varies (see types of Protists)    Movement (if any)  o Cilia (short hair­like projections) o Flagellum (whip­like tail) o Pseudopodia (fake feet) Some Types of Protists we examined in Lab   Euglena  o Chloroplast (green in color) o Flagellum o Makes own food o Has red eye spot o Freshwater  Amoeba o Unsymmetrical shape o Pseudopodia  o Heterotrophic  o Engulfs food  Paramecium o Asexual  o Chloroplasts o Heterotrophic  o Uses Cilia and contraction to move o Marine or Freshwater  Dinoflagellates o Mixotrophic (Heterotrophic and Autotrophic o Have 2 Flagellum  o Some have cellulose or silica armor   o Marine or Freshwater   Plasmodium o Parasitic o Immobile  o Infects blood cells o Causes Malaria   Diatoms o Phytoplankton o Photosynthetic o Slow moving o Marine organism o Silica cell wall  Brown Algae o Multicellular  o Forms underwater forests o Also called Kelp o Colonized  Guide to Exams­Biology Chapter 12­DNA 1. What are the three parts of a DNA molecule? a. Phosphate  b. Sugar (deoxyribose) c. Base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine) 2. What bases pair together and what is this rule called? a. Chargaff’s Base Pairing Rule b. A=T and G=C 3. Why is DNA called a double helix? a. Anti­parallel stands: run in opposite directions from 5’ to 3’ b. Hydrogen bonding of bases: DNA is easily separated at the base for easy  replication. However, Covalent Bonds hold the phosphate to the sugar and the  sugar to the base so the molecule is hard to break apart away from the base. c. Base paring rule­ A=T and G=C. d. Looks like a “twisted ladder” 4. What did Wilkins and Franklin do? a. Maurice Wilkins helped to discover the Double Helix model by making X­Ray  diffraction images of DNA in a laboratory. b. Franklin also used X­Ray diffraction to study the model of DNA. This found the  two strands of DNA and the bases. 5. What is made during DNA replication? a. Occurs during interphase of cell replication b. DNA polymerase joins individual nucleotides, proofreads new DNA, and makes  an exact copy of DNA. c. DNA is unzipped and a new sequence of DNA is put on. d. This takes place in the nucleus of a Cell. 6. What is the role of Helicase? a. It unzips the molecule of DNA. Chapter 13­Protein Synthesis and RNA 7. Name 3 ways RNA is different from DNA. a. The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of DNA’s deoxyribose b. RNA is single­stranded while DNA is double stranded. c. RNA contains uracil, taking the place of DNA’s thymine. 8. What are the three types of RNA? a. mRNA (messenger RNA)­carry information from DNA to other parts of the cell. b. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)­what the subunits of the Ribosome are made of. c. tRNA (transfer RNA)­Carries correct Amino Acid to the ribosome and matches it  to a coded mRNA message. 9. What is made during transcription? a. Segments of DNA act as templates to produce complimentary DNA strands. 10. Where does Transcription take place?  Guide to Exams­Biology a. In the nucleus 11. When does transcription take place? a. Transcription takes place as proteins are needed to be made. 12. What are the roles of promoters? a. Promoters are regions of DNA that have specific base sequences. They are the  signals in the DNA molecule that show the RNA polymerase exactly where to  begin making RNA. Similar signals in DNA cause transcription to stop when the  RNA molecule is completed. 13. What is the Tail and Cap of mRNA made of? a. Tail­Triple Adenine b. Cap­Guanine 14. What are the parts of the pre­mRNA that are removed before officially becoming a  mRNA molecule? a. Introns 15. What are codons? a. Each three letter word in mRNA. 16. What are anticodons? a. Each three letter word in tRNA. 17. How are codons and anticodons related together during Translation? a. Each tRNA anticodon has a complementary mRNA codon so the proteins are put  in the correct sequence for the certain expressed trait protein. 18. Explain Translation. a. Translation happens in the cytoplasm of a cell.  b. It begins when a ribosome attaches to an mRNA molecule. c. Then, the ribosome attaches to these amino acids in the correct sequence to a  growing strand started by AUG, the start codon. d. tRNA helps form a peptide bond between the growing strand of amino acids. e. After the protein is completed, it is ended by a stop codon and the protein is  released from the ribosome along with the mRNA. 19. When does translation take place? a. Translation takes place when proteins are needed to be made. 20. Why is the genetic code called “universal”? a. This is because the genetic code is the same in almost all living organisms. The  same codons and anticodons typically call for the same protein/amino acid. 21. Explain the role of tRNA during translation? a. tRNA’s anticodons bring the correct amino acid to complement the mRNA  sequence. For example, if the codon on the mRNA was AAC, the anticodon  would be UUG on the tRNA, bringing Leucine as the next amino acid. 22. Why does any organism need proteins? a. Proteins are the building blocks of life. In order for organisms to grow and  maintain strength, proteins are necessary. 23. What is the central dogma of Biology? a. DNA­RNA­Proteins 24. What are the purines?  Guide to Exams­Biology a. A,G 25. What are the pyrmidines? a. C,T, (U) 26. Are Adenine and Guanine (Uracil) held together by a double or triple bond? a. Double 27. Are Cytosine and Guanine held together by a double or triple bond? a. Triple 28. Do both DNA and RNA have nitrogenous bases? a. Yes 29. Where does RNA polymerase first bind to start transcription? a. Promoters 30. What does rRNA do doing translation? a. Helps to make Ribosomal subunits, holds together the peptide chain and creates  peptide bond. 31. What is the change of one base of DNA to another? a. Substitution 32. What is it called when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another? a. Translocation 33. What is a mutation that produces an extra copy of all or part of a chromosome? a. Duplication 34. What is a chromosomal mutation that reverses the direction of part of a chromosome? a. Inversion 35. What is the kind of mutation that can change every amino acid that follows? a. Frame shift mutation 36. What is a change in one or a few nucleotides that occurs at a single point in the DNA  sequence? a. Point mutation 37. What is a mutation? a. A heritable change in genetic information. 38. Substitution, insertions, and deletions are all _______________ mutations. a. Frame shift 39. What is the difference between a gene mutation and a chromosomal mutation? a. Gene­usually only involves a few genes and not as serious as chromosomal  mutations. b. Chromosomal­serous consequences that result from the mutation of a large  section or the entire chromosome. 40. What is an exception to the central Dogma of Biology? a. HIV b. The ability for some viruses to transfer information from RNA to DNA 41. What is a base that has one ring? a. Pyrimidine Chapter 14­Heredity  Guide to Exams­Biology 42. What is a karyotype? a. Picture of the nucleus. Shows the chromosomes as diploid pair in decreasing  sizes. 43. What two things can karyotypes tell us? a. They can tell us if the human has a missing/extra chromosome b. Identify the sex of a fetus. 44. What are the two sex chromosomes present in females and males? a. Females­2 X Chromosomes (one is a barr body) b. Males­1 X and 1 Y Chromosome 45. Can males be carriers of autosomal recessive traits? a. Yes males and females 46. Can males and females be carriers of autosomal dominant? a. No, the


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