Lymphatic, Immune Systems & Respiratory Anatomy Notes
Lymphatic, Immune Systems & Respiratory Anatomy Notes Biol 3320
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyenne on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 3320 at Bowling Green State University taught by Lee Meserve in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Lymphatic System Fluid as it leaves system is very similar to blood plasma Lymph Formation • Lymph Vessels: Pass lymph to lymphatic ducts, low pressure and slow movement of fluid which can lead to malignant cells o Lymph Capillaries: Absorb interstitial fluid and pass lymph to afferent lymphatic vessels, § Lymph capillaries are closed on one in, and open on the other. VERY thin walled with one cell layer thick, small opening that lymphatic fluid will enter o Thoracic Duct (Left Lymphatic Duct): Largest lymphatic duct, extends from full chest cavity attaching to left subclavian vein (underneath collar bone) which has a low blood pressure o Right Lymphatic Duct: Right side of upper body and right arm, drained into right • What causes Lymph to Move? o Formation of Lymph o Pulsing of Arteries o Contraction of Skeletal Muscles that the lymphatic vessels flow alongside o Thoracic Pressure Changes • Lymph Nodes: Mass of tissues that filter lymph and remove foreign substances through filtering, phagocytosis and immune reaction o Lymph vessels towards, Efferent Lymph vessels away from lymph node o Thymus Gland: Mass of tissue in the chest cavity just above the heart over the large vessel that carries into heart and out of the heart § Important to generation for immune response, develops immunity to many things o Spleen: Not a vital organ to live, recycles the part of red blood cells when they rupture. Also regulates the amount of functional platelets one has and breaks them down o Other Lymphatic Structures: Primarily located in the abdomen cavity, and alongside your intestine Defense Against Invaders Immunity: The ability to ward off damage or disease through natural defenses • Non-specific Immunity o Defense against any foreign invader o Skin § Characteristic s: Dead, dry cells, living cells are what gets infected with virus. Being dead, impossible to be infected § Secretions: Materials that have the capability of breaking cell wall of bacteria to rupture plasma membrane o Granulocytes § Neutrophils --> Most abundant • Chemotaxis • Phagocytosis : Cell eating occurs • Degranulation § Eosinophils --> 5% abundant • Parasites • Allergens • Degranulation § Basophils --> Least abundant • Degranulation • Attraction of other granulocytes o Agranulocytes --> Specific or adaptive immunity § Lymphocytes § Natural Killer cells • Perforins: Protein molecules that release from granules inserting into microorganisms --> Microorganism dies • Granzymes: Enzymes that digest away viruses and organism o Specific Immunity: Defense generated against specific invaders; has memory component § Types of specific immunity • Natural active immunity: Occurs when exposed to live pathogen, develops the disease, then becomes immune • Artificial active immunity: What you develop when you get immunized • Natural passive immunity: Get antibodies from mom through the placenta (anti-rh idea) • Artificial passive immunity: Antibodies against the antigens generated in another source o Components of Active Immunity § Substances and Cells Involved • Antigens – recognized as foreign and activate immune response • T-Lymphocytes (Cells) and B-Lymphocytes (Cells) o T-cells – Must undergo maturation in the thymus gland o B-cells – leave bone marrow ‘ready to rock’ o Called immunocompetent cells o Have receptors that ‘recognize’ antigens o Cell- mediated and Antibody-mediated Immunity § Cytotoxic (‘killer’) T-cells – kill foreign cells § Plasma cells (from B cells) – secrete antibodies § Both require helper T-cells § Two types of cells work together o Clone Development § Specific T-cell and b-cell ‘chosen”, activated, divide to form clone § Effector cell – active T-cell, plasma cell, die after response § Memory cell – retain information about invasion, long-lived o Antigen Processing § T-cells • Antigen must be processed and presented o Antigen-presenting cells (APC) o Macrophages, dendritic cells, B-cells o Co-stimulation requires other molecules (cytokines, etc.) § B-cells • Antigen binds directly to receptor on B cell • B-cell can also process antigen; more intense response • Helper T-cells required for co-stimulation • Activate B-cells converted to plasma cells, which secrete antibody § Antibody (Ab) § Immunoglobulins (Ig) • Bind to epitope that activated their production • Same as B-cell receptor, but secreted • Several means of action o Enhance phagocytosis o Activate complement • Immunological Memory o Primary Response § Ten Days to Peak, Primarily IgM § IgM peaks first o Secondary Response § Two - 5 Days to Peak, Primarily IgG § IgG is smaller, can leave blood system and move around to attract phagocytic cells § During second response the IgG soars o Manufacurting memory cells Respiratory Anatomy The Respiratory Tree • Upper Tract • The Nose o External Nares (Nostrils) § Have coarse hairs that filter out large matter that otherwise would get stuck in your nasal cavity • Nasal Cavities: lined by a mucus membrane o Mucus captures small matter like dust that would otherwise go in the nasal cavity o Contains many capillaries close to the surface, used to regulate air temperature before it reaches the lungs o Nasal Septum: separates the right and left nasal cavities • Pharynx (Throat): Extends from back of nasal cavity down to the lungs o Nasopharynx: from back of the hard pallet to end of the soft pallet o Oropharynx: from end of the soft pallet down to the upper end of the larynx o Laryngopharynx: from upper end of larynx to lower end of opening to larynx • Lower Tract o Larynx: Hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to lungs, holds vocal cords/voice box o Epiglottis: Spoon shaped, above glottis upper most cartilage of larynx o Glotttis: Opening from the pharynx into the larynx § Thyroid Cartilage (Adams Apple) § Cricoid Cartilage: opening of larynx into trachea § Vocal Cords: Folds of tissue that vibrate in airstream to produce ones voice § Trachea: Cartilage Rings to keep it open, back of cartilage is muscle § Cartilage Rings § Smooth Muscle: In between cartilage rings § Mucous Membrane § Bronchi § Bronchioles: Small bronchi in which the bronchus divides § Alveoli § Surfactant: reduces surface tension of the water that's inside alveoli