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ANPS 019 Lecture objectives answered week 3

by: Olivia may

ANPS 019 Lecture objectives answered week 3 ANPS 019

Marketplace > University of Vermont > ANPS 019 > ANPS 019 Lecture objectives answered week 3
Olivia may
GPA 3.9

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ANPS 019 Lecture objectives answered week 3
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Sean Flynn
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia may on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANPS 019 at University of Vermont taught by Sean Flynn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Lecture 5 objectives     1. Name the stages of the cell cycle and describe the events in each stage    Interphase (whole cell)​­ ​G1​: growth in size, synthesis of proteins and RNA for maintenance  activities, synthesis of Proteins needed for S phase, duplication of Organelles variable in length  of stage ​S​:  6 hours, growth and DNA synthesis, Replication of DNA each of the 46  chromosome is duplicated into sister chromatid via DNA polymerase G ​ 2:​ growth and final  preparations for division 4 hours    Mitosis (Events in nucleus)­   Prophase:​ Chromatin condenses into chromosomes, each with two sister chromatids joined at  region called centrome ​ re​ entrioles: organize microtubules, move in opposite directions  ​ Microtubules: network assembles into m ​​ itotic spindle, nuclear membrane dissolves in a late  prophase   Metaphase:  ​ Chromatids align at the center of mitotic spindle  ​ Metaphase plate   Anaphase:​ microtubules pull chromatids to opposite ends the cell, sister chromatids pulled  apart, keeping them together ensure FULL copy is created  Telophase:​ Microtubule spindle dissociates, nuclear membrane reforms, chromatids disperse to  chromatin ­ ready to make proteins     Cytokinesis­  The cytoplasmic event overlapping the end of mitosis ­ Actin network pulls membrane into  cleavage furrow​ ­ separate cytoplasm into two new    2. Explain how the cell cycle is regulated and how this process is altered in cancer    There are a number of checkpoints which regulate the cell cycle. G ​ 1 checkpoint ​ phase ensures  cell size is adequate, nutrient are available, growth factors are present are G ​ 2 checkpoint  makes sure cell size is adequate, and chromosome replication is complete M ​ etaphase  checkpoint​ ensures all chromosome are attached at mitotic spindle ​Protooncogenes­  ​ Genes  whose normal protein products stimulate the cell cycle  Oncogenes­​ Mutated versions of these genes lead to deregulate cell cycle and abnormal growth  (cancers)  Tumor Suppressor Genes​­ Genes whose normal protein products repress cell division ­ mutated  versions unable to regulate growth (cancers)  Note the difference in the causes of cancer ­  something happening vs failure to repress     Abnormal cells typically die via cell suicide or apoptosis. Other causes of death are Autophagy  (self digestion) caused by starvation and Lysis which is caused by a physical trauma.    3. Understand the mechanisms of metastasis     Metastasis is a process which malignant, or invasive tumor cells, spread to other parts of the  body. These cells have a lower need for growth factors from surrounding cells so they don't age  or die. They secrete proteins that digest extracellular material and signal blood vessels to grow  into tumor and nourish (angiogenesis)    4. Describe the role of the stem cells in the human tissue     Partially differentiated Stem cells replace most cells i.e bone marrow, muscle etc. Stem cells are  adult cells that are not fully functional/differentiated allowing for cell replacement.   Lecture 6 objectives    1. Define the term tissue and list the 4 tissue types in the body    Tissues are the collection of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform one or  more select functions. Four tissue types: Epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular.    2. Explain the different kinds of cell­cell junctions and what advantages each  provides to a group of cells    Tight junctions​­ interlocking proteins on the plasma membranes fused cells together preventing  molecules from passing through the intercellular space. Separates compartments by sheets of  semi permeable tissue; regulates permeability between two compartments. A ​ bsorption  ​ transport  of material toward the bloodstream. S ​ ecretion  ​ transport of material away from the blood stream.     Desmosomes​­ Anchoring/linker proteins extend across extracellular space and attach to each  other. Holds/anchors cells together    Gap junction​­ Membrane proteins from pore between cells allowing a continuous flow of  cytoplasm and ions from one cell to another *important in electrical signaling and organs where  cells work in close synchrony*.     Functional syncytium​­  a network of small cell functioning as a well coordinated group       3. Compare and contrast the 4 primary modes of cell­cell communication.    Direct communication​­ one cell passes signal molecules directly into cytoplasm through gap  junctions    Synaptic communication­​ a neuron releases a chemical signal onto the membrane of a target  cell ­ long distance    Paracrine communication​­ (local) a chemical signal diffuses a short distance through the  extracellular fluid to neighbouring cells  ­ short distance    Endocrine communication​­ a chemicals signal is picked up by the blood stream and transport to  ​ distant cells ­ ​Hormone is a chemical message carried by blood stream ­ long distance     *Hormones/chemical message do no “seek out” receptors, rather are released and  ​ only  ​ accepted by those cells with the proper receptor*  Lecture 7 Objectives    1. Describe the characteristics of epithelial sheets    1) Little space between cells, held tightly together by cell­to­cell junctions, A ​ vascular, no blood  vessels betwee​ n cells, limited in thickness bc nutrients are received via diffusion, Specialized for  absorption and protection ​Lateral interdig ​ itations adjacent cells intertwin membranes. 2)  Continuous rate of cell division, epithelial stem cells, 90% on cancer occur in epithelial cells bc  increase cell turnover mean increase chance of mutation. 3) Cells are polarized, one side is  different from the o​ ther ​ pical­ exposed surface (away from blood sup ​ ply)​ asal­ surface  anchored to connective tissue (toward blood supply) .  ​ Basement​  membrane, including basal  lamina, glue like, porous, connects cells to connective tissue  4) specializations ­ M ​ icrovill​  small  finger like projections of the apical or basal surface increase surface area, covered with  transport proteins A ​ c​ tive transport CIl​ ­ Longer than microvilli but fewer of them, core of  microtubules, rhythmical movement  meant to transport muscue     2. Name epithelioid sheets by thickness and cell shape and explain the advantages  and disadvantages of the different arrangements    ​ Simple­ one la ​ yer thick ​ tratified ­ more than one ce ​ ll thic​ quamous ­ fl​ at, broad C​ uboidal ­  Cub​ e­shape C ​ olumnar ­ Tall, narrow cells *A ​ lways label by cel​ls on apical surface* SImple  Simple squamous​ ­ Diffusion and filtration, passive transport,  protection is not important S ​ imple  Cuboidal​­ Secretion and absorption, More cytoplasm, more volume, more mitochondria Active  transport ​Simple Columnar ​­ Secretion and absorption, EVEN More cytoplasm, EVEN more  volume, EVEN more mitochondria MORE Active transport S ​ tratified squamous­ ​  Protects  underlying tissue, bad for transport, barrier function. T ​ ransitional Epithelium  ​ ­ within the urethra  and bladder, stretches to allow for the storage urine C ​ iliated Pseudostratified Columnar  ​ ­ single  layer of cells with varying heights, respiratory system     3. Explain the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands & 4. Explain the  main mechanism by which gland cells release their secretions     Endocrine glands​ release hormones into surrounding fluid to be picked up and t ​ ransported by  the blood stream      Exocrine glands​ secrete through ducts onto surface of the organ  Merocrine​ Product release through exocytosis   Holocrine​ destroy the cells (not program cell suicide, more of a sacrifice)    Unicellular​ ­ single secretory cell embedded with an epithelium   Multicellular​­ complex  


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