ANPS 019 Lecture objectives answered week 3
ANPS 019 Lecture objectives answered week 3 ANPS 019
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia may on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANPS 019 at University of Vermont taught by Sean Flynn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Lecture 5 objectives 1. Name the stages of the cell cycle and describe the events in each stage Interphase (whole cell) G1: growth in size, synthesis of proteins and RNA for maintenance activities, synthesis of Proteins needed for S phase, duplication of Organelles variable in length of stage S: 6 hours, growth and DNA synthesis, Replication of DNA each of the 46 chromosome is duplicated into sister chromatid via DNA polymerase G 2: growth and final preparations for division 4 hours Mitosis (Events in nucleus) Prophase: Chromatin condenses into chromosomes, each with two sister chromatids joined at region called centrome re entrioles: organize microtubules, move in opposite directions Microtubules: network assembles into m itotic spindle, nuclear membrane dissolves in a late prophase Metaphase: Chromatids align at the center of mitotic spindle Metaphase plate Anaphase: microtubules pull chromatids to opposite ends the cell, sister chromatids pulled apart, keeping them together ensure FULL copy is created Telophase: Microtubule spindle dissociates, nuclear membrane reforms, chromatids disperse to chromatin ready to make proteins Cytokinesis The cytoplasmic event overlapping the end of mitosis Actin network pulls membrane into cleavage furrow separate cytoplasm into two new 2. Explain how the cell cycle is regulated and how this process is altered in cancer There are a number of checkpoints which regulate the cell cycle. G 1 checkpoint phase ensures cell size is adequate, nutrient are available, growth factors are present are G 2 checkpoint makes sure cell size is adequate, and chromosome replication is complete M etaphase checkpoint ensures all chromosome are attached at mitotic spindle Protooncogenes Genes whose normal protein products stimulate the cell cycle Oncogenes Mutated versions of these genes lead to deregulate cell cycle and abnormal growth (cancers) Tumor Suppressor Genes Genes whose normal protein products repress cell division mutated versions unable to regulate growth (cancers) Note the difference in the causes of cancer something happening vs failure to repress Abnormal cells typically die via cell suicide or apoptosis. Other causes of death are Autophagy (self digestion) caused by starvation and Lysis which is caused by a physical trauma. 3. Understand the mechanisms of metastasis Metastasis is a process which malignant, or invasive tumor cells, spread to other parts of the body. These cells have a lower need for growth factors from surrounding cells so they don't age or die. They secrete proteins that digest extracellular material and signal blood vessels to grow into tumor and nourish (angiogenesis) 4. Describe the role of the stem cells in the human tissue Partially differentiated Stem cells replace most cells i.e bone marrow, muscle etc. Stem cells are adult cells that are not fully functional/differentiated allowing for cell replacement. Lecture 6 objectives 1. Define the term tissue and list the 4 tissue types in the body Tissues are the collection of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform one or more select functions. Four tissue types: Epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular. 2. Explain the different kinds of cellcell junctions and what advantages each provides to a group of cells Tight junctions interlocking proteins on the plasma membranes fused cells together preventing molecules from passing through the intercellular space. Separates compartments by sheets of semi permeable tissue; regulates permeability between two compartments. A bsorption transport of material toward the bloodstream. S ecretion transport of material away from the blood stream. Desmosomes Anchoring/linker proteins extend across extracellular space and attach to each other. Holds/anchors cells together Gap junction Membrane proteins from pore between cells allowing a continuous flow of cytoplasm and ions from one cell to another *important in electrical signaling and organs where cells work in close synchrony*. Functional syncytium a network of small cell functioning as a well coordinated group 3. Compare and contrast the 4 primary modes of cellcell communication. Direct communication one cell passes signal molecules directly into cytoplasm through gap junctions Synaptic communication a neuron releases a chemical signal onto the membrane of a target cell long distance Paracrine communication (local) a chemical signal diffuses a short distance through the extracellular fluid to neighbouring cells short distance Endocrine communication a chemicals signal is picked up by the blood stream and transport to distant cells Hormone is a chemical message carried by blood stream long distance *Hormones/chemical message do no “seek out” receptors, rather are released and only accepted by those cells with the proper receptor* Lecture 7 Objectives 1. Describe the characteristics of epithelial sheets 1) Little space between cells, held tightly together by celltocell junctions, A vascular, no blood vessels betwee n cells, limited in thickness bc nutrients are received via diffusion, Specialized for absorption and protection Lateral interdig itations adjacent cells intertwin membranes. 2) Continuous rate of cell division, epithelial stem cells, 90% on cancer occur in epithelial cells bc increase cell turnover mean increase chance of mutation. 3) Cells are polarized, one side is different from the o ther pical exposed surface (away from blood sup ply) asal surface anchored to connective tissue (toward blood supply) . Basement membrane, including basal lamina, glue like, porous, connects cells to connective tissue 4) specializations M icrovill small finger like projections of the apical or basal surface increase surface area, covered with transport proteins A c tive transport CIl Longer than microvilli but fewer of them, core of microtubules, rhythmical movement meant to transport muscue 2. Name epithelioid sheets by thickness and cell shape and explain the advantages and disadvantages of the different arrangements Simple one la yer thick tratified more than one ce ll thic quamous fl at, broad C uboidal Cub eshape C olumnar Tall, narrow cells *A lways label by cells on apical surface* SImple Simple squamous Diffusion and filtration, passive transport, protection is not important S imple Cuboidal Secretion and absorption, More cytoplasm, more volume, more mitochondria Active transport Simple Columnar Secretion and absorption, EVEN More cytoplasm, EVEN more volume, EVEN more mitochondria MORE Active transport S tratified squamous Protects underlying tissue, bad for transport, barrier function. T ransitional Epithelium within the urethra and bladder, stretches to allow for the storage urine C iliated Pseudostratified Columnar single layer of cells with varying heights, respiratory system 3. Explain the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands & 4. Explain the main mechanism by which gland cells release their secretions Endocrine glands release hormones into surrounding fluid to be picked up and t ransported by the blood stream Exocrine glands secrete through ducts onto surface of the organ Merocrine Product release through exocytosis Holocrine destroy the cells (not program cell suicide, more of a sacrifice) Unicellular single secretory cell embedded with an epithelium Multicellular complex
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