ANPS 019 Lecture Objectives Answered week of 9/19
ANPS 019 Lecture Objectives Answered week of 9/19 ANPS 019
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia may on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANPS 019 at University of Vermont taught by Sean Flynn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Lecture 8 objectives 1. Describe the common characteristics of all connective tissue and their roles in the body Creating structural framework, protecting delicate organs, storing energy reserves, defending the body from microorganisms, defending the body from microorganisms, transport fluids and dissolve materials (blood and lymph). E xtracellular Matrix space between cells; contains fiber which provide support, g round substance which fills in all space between cells and fibers determines the consent of the connective tissue 2. Describe the types of cells, fibers, and ground substance comprising connective tissue proper and recognize the most common arrangements of CT proper in the body Found everywhere in the body. Predominant cell type is Fibroblast. Ground substance dense syrup consistency: contains a large amount of sugar and proteins which binds to a large amount of water. Connective tissue proper is arranged into sheets call F ascia Cells types Fibroblasts the primary cell types; produce fibers and most components of ground substance Mesenchymal cells stem cells Adipocytes fat cells Melanocytes produce and store melanin pigment Mast cells histamine containing cells involved in inflammation Lymphocytes Disease fighting white blood cells Extracellular Fibers Collagen strength Elastic stretch and recoil Reticular fine networks Loose connective tissue proper Allows for migrating cells, blood vessels, nerves lots of ground substance Loose areolar, Adipose tissue Dense connective tissue proper dense packing of collagen makes for stronger tissue Lots of fiber Dense Irregular connective tissue Fibers are not arranged in a regular order, strong form all different directions Dense regular connective tissue Fibers are arranged in a regular order, running parallel to each other, strong at certain angles 3. Describe the types of cells, fiber, and ground substance comprising cartilage and recognizing the most common forms of cartilage in the body Small thin plates of solid material. Chondrocytes located in l acunae (small fluid filled space within the cartilage plate) (c hondroblasts immature form). Mostly collagen or elastin. Ground substance is a firm gel containing chondroitin sulfate. P erichondrium (CT proper) separates cartilage from surrounding tissue, contains chondroblast. A vascular no blood vessels, does not heal well. Hyaline MOST COMMON FORM IN THE BODY. Firm yet, amorphous. Ex. end of long bones, trachea Elastic similar to hyaline but with more elastic fibers in matrix, great flexibility ex. inner ear Fibrocartilag similar to hyaline but less firm, thick c ollagen fibers, little ground substance, absorb compression and shock ex. Discs of knee joint, intervertebral discs 4. Explain why some kinds of connective tissue can repair throughout life while others have limited ability to repair Appositional growth add from the edges, chondroblasts in perichondrium produce new cartilage along the surface of the mature cartilage. Interstitial growth mature chondrocytes divide with their lacunae. Cartilage exist only in thins sheets because it relies on d iffusion to get nutrients. There are limitations to repair because it is avascular and heals poorly when injured due to a lack of blood flow. Lecture 9 objectives 1. Describe the role of the bone in the body Protection and storage bone marrow that produces red and white blood cells, Storage of minerals and lipids especially mineral salt, particularly calcium phosphates, deposited in lamellae (rings) around osteocytes, blood cell production, Supporting connective tissue with a solid matrix 2. Describe the types of cells, fibers, and ground substance comprising bone, and recognize the most common arrangement of bone in the body Osteoblast bone stem cells Osteocytes mature bone cells O steoclast chew up bone Ground substance Proteoglycans and glycoproteins, 65% hydroxyapatite crystals (mineral salt, particularly calcium phosphates, deposited in lamellae (rings) around osteocytes). Epiphysis at each end, Diaphysis = shaft Bone surface is covered by periosteum on outside (CT proper “around bone”), and e ndosteum inside Articular cartilage at joint surface (hyaline type) at joint surface Compact bone basic unit is osteon which is a concentric rings of bone material around a central canal, each contain several concentric rings of osteocytes organized around a vein, a, artery, and a nerve, separated by lamellae (extracellular matrix). Each ring lies in a small pool of fluid called the lacuna, small branching channel called canaliculi allowing for contact with other cells. Spongy bone within trabeculae, small interconnected spike of bone, osteocytes are arranged circumferentially, but surrounded by marrow fluid from which the receive nutrients. Makes bone lighter with out giving up strength. 3. Describe the process by which bone is formed and repairs after injury Endochondral ossification the formation of bone on a cartilage model; cartilage is gradually replaced by bone over years long bone. Shaft pushes out, not growth from the ends. Epiphyseal plate hyaline cartilage grows on one and end and is replaced by bone on the other. Articular cartilage at joint end, never replaced by bone but wears with age, osteoarthritis (old age). Epiphyseal line where the growth plate closes, visible in children, disappears by adulthood. Intramembranous ossification formation of new bone with in fibrous membranes, no cartilage template. Formed from mesenchymal generic stem cell Flat bone Appositional Bone growth The formation of new bone growth along existing bone surface, occurs even after growth plate is closed adult bone remodeling Factors regulating bone growth hormones, calcium regulation, vitamin D, weight bearing exercise. Bone heals well bc so highly vascular. P eriosteum is important in bone repair after a break because it is the origin site of osteoblast (bone stem cells) the will inate repair. Internal callus > bony callus > healed fracture. Lecture Objectives 10 1. Define the term joint and understand the relationship between joint structure and degree of mobility Joint is any place where two bones meet. Not all joints have movement. There are different degrees of mobility. Mobility is inversely related to stability. The more movement, the less stable. The more stable the less movement. Different types of connective tissue Connective tissue proper Fibrous joints Cartilage cartilaginous joints Combination synovial joint *injury often is of the connective tissue rather than the bones* Joints are encased in joint capsule or articular capsule which include a fibrous layer surrounding and a synovial membrane. The synovial membrane releases a slippery lubrication that fills the joint cavity (space between the bones). At the point of contact of either bone there is articular cartilage, which is hyaline cartilage that never turn to bone. All synovial joints have stabilizing ligaments (dense regular connective tissue that fuses fuses into or on the joint capsule. 2. Explain features that determine the shape and size of a bone Bone thickness reflects the amount of weight it supports. Ridges and bumps on bones are sites of muscle attachment. The amount of bone increases with stress. There are openings and spaces that create passageways for air, food, blood vessels, nerves, etc. Again in shape, Mobility is inversely related to stability. The more movement, the less stable. The more stable the less movement. 3. Describe the organization of the axial skeleton and the body cavities it protects Axial skeleton contains the thoracic cage, vertebral column, and skull. It functions to protect organs, provides attachment for limbs. The skull protects the brain with a network of suture joints held together by fibrous connective tissue. One point of weakness where four bones meet. Within the cranial cavity there are depressions that cadel the coreestpoinf lobes. Small paired holes called foramina allow cranial nerves to communicate with in head. Foramen Magma. The largest of the foramina, where the holes where spinal cord meets the brain. Infant skulls are not fully formed to allow for passage through birth canal and final growth of brain. “Soft spots” are called fontanelles. Paranasal sinus hollow spaces within some skull bones lighten weight of skull and add resonance for speech. The orbit houses eyeball and eye muscles. The oral cavity houses moth muscles, including tongue salivary glands. Vertebral column protects spinal cord. 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx. Stronger/ thicker near the bottom of spin b/c supports more weight. *Curves are exaggerated/not drawn to scale in image* Thoracic and sacral curves are sometimes called accommodation curves because the are present from birth to accommodate for growth of internal organs Cervical and Lumbar curves are sometimes called compensation curves because they appear after birth an account for weight shits for upright posture Kyphosis Exaggeration in the thoracic curve Lordosis exaggeration in the lumbar curve (pregnancy) Scoliosis abnormal alter curvature Thoracic cage Houses and protects lungs and heart. The diagram separates the a thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. Rib cage provides attachment for muscles of respiration and vertebral column and limbs. The sternal angle is palpable landmark used to locate the second rib. Ventral Medial part of ribs are actual cartilage shock absorber when palpating Abdominal muscles stretch with to accommodate structures within. 4. Describe the organization of the appendicular skeleton and explain the similarity in the pattern between upper and lower extremities The appendicular skeleton contains the upper and lower limbs and the pelvic and pectoral girdles. Basic Patterns Girdle series of bones connecting limbs to trunk Single long bone proximal two long bones in distal limb Series of small bones in wrist and ankle Phalanges Lower limb bones are stronger and thicker bc more weight bearing. The hip is more stable thus less mobile than the shoulder because it is weather bearing. Some loss mobily is offset by long femoral neck. Comparison of forearm and leg: Forearm: Radius and ulna of equal size Move relative to one another Mobility at expense of stability Leg: Weight bearing tibia of much greater size than fibula No significant movement relative to one another stability at expense of Mobility
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