Week 4 Notes; Colonial Society
Week 4 Notes; Colonial Society History 1301: 02E
Popular in History of the United States through Reconstruction
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Gregoriew on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1301: 02E at Texas A&M University - Commerce taught by Dr. Judy Ford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see History of the United States through Reconstruction in History at Texas A&M University - Commerce.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
I. Consumption and Trade in the British Atlantic The Atlantic World o Britain’s central role in transatlantic trade greatly enriched the mother country, but it also created high standards of living for many North American colonists. o Tied together Europe, North America, and South America. o During the seventeenth and eighteenth century, improvements in manufacturing, transportation, and the availability of credit increased the opportunity for colonists to purchase consumer goods. North America vs. the "sugar colonies": Jamaica, Barbados, Dominica, & other Caribbean islands o The sugar colonies would have been importing sugar, lumber, sometimes an entire house, delivered by sea. o 1733 Molasses act: Taxed all sugar from the North American colonies toward the West Indies set to expire 1763 o As a result, colonists found it relatively easy to trade on their own terms, whether that was with foreign nations, pirates, or smugglers. o Sugar, tobacco, tea, and coffee were part of the consumer revolution. o Beginning with the Sugar Act in 1764, and continuing with the Stamp Act and the Townshend Duties, Parliament levied taxes on sugar, paper, lead, glass, and tea, all products that contributed to colonists’ sense of gentility. The "consumer revolution" o Before 17 century people produced much of what they consumed. th th o During 17 and 18 century most people ended up purchasing goods produced by others; turned into consumers. o Cheap consumption allowed middle class Americans to match many of the trends in clothing, food, and household décor that traditionally marked the wealthiest, aristocratic classes. o Provincial Americans, often seen by their London peers as less cultivated or “backwater,” could think of themselves as lords and ladies of their own communities through their ability to purchase and display British-made goods. Status-value of British-manufactured goods o Showing a high status in the colonies, people would import items from Britain o Purchasing things from London would prove to England that they had “good taste” Europe thought the colonies weren’t cultured since they didn’t have the same consumer items. Colonial currency shortage o In 1690, colonial Massachusetts became the first colony, as well as the first place in the Western world, to issue paper bills to be used as money. o Bills of credit, were issued for finite periods of time on the colony’s credit and varied in denomination from quite small to large enough to cover major transactions. o Commodities could be difficult to transport, so people could deposit a certain amount of tobacco in a warehouse and receive a note with the value of the crop that could be traded as money. o Notes provided colonists with a much-needed medium for exchange o Currency that worked in Virginia might be worthless in Pennsylvania. Colonists and officials back in Britain debated whether or not it was right or desirable to use paper instead of gold or silver. o Paper money tended to lose value quicker than coins and was often counterfeited caused the Board of Trade to restrict the uses of paper money in the Currency Acts of 1751 and 1763. North American cities: Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Charleston o Four largest cities in British North America. o Populations of approximately 40,000; 25,000; 16,000; and 12,000 people o At the base of the social ladder were the laboring classes, which included both enslaved and free persons ranging from apprentices to master craftsmen. o In the middle were shopkeepers, artisans, and skilled mariners. o Above them stood the merchant elites who tended to be actively involved in the city’s social and political affairs, as well as in the buying, selling, and trading of goods. o Charleston was the only “walled” city Sea Wall; stayed intact until multiple hurricanes hit o Slaves, both rural and urban, made up the majority of the laboring population on the eve of the American Revolution. II. Slavery, Anti-Slavery and Atlantic Exchange Virginia and tobacco plantations o Virginia, the oldest of the English mainland colonies, imported its first slaves in 1619. o Virginia planters built larger and larger estates and guaranteed that these estates would remain intact through the use of primogeniture estate would go to the eldest son and through entail: a legal procedure that prevented the breakup and sale of estates. o guaranteed that the great planters would dominate social and economic life in the Chesapeake. o 1750: 100,000 African slaves in Virginia, at least 40% of total population. o 1705: House of Burgesses passed first slave code. Children born into slavery, pay to move slaves out of colonies to gain freedom, converting to Christianity = No Freedom o Slave owners could not be convicted of murder for killing a slave; any black Virginian who hit a white colonist would be whipped. The Carolinas and rice production o Many settlers in Carolina were slaveholders from British Caribbean sugar islands, and had brutal slave codes. o Slaves could legally be beaten, branded, mutilated, and castrated. o Rice was widely grown in West Africa, and planters requested slaves skilled in the production of rice fields. o The swampy conditions of rice had dangerous diseases. Malaria and other diseases spread owners typically lived in Charleston townhouses o The Stono Rebellion (1739) 80 slaves set out for Spanish Florida under liberty banner. o Local militia defeated the rebels in battle, captured and executed many of the slaves, and sold others to the sugar plantations of the West Indies o Negro Act 1740: No education, limited assembly, limited movement Only 3 people to a group Slavery in the Mid-Atlantic colonies o Quakers and anti-slavery first group to go against slavery o 1758: Quakers in Pennsylvania disowned members who engaged in the slave trade. o 1772: slave-owning Quakers could be expelled from their meetings. New England o Slavery never took off in Massachusetts, Connecticut, or New Hampshire o No cash crops minimized the economic use of slavery. o The few slaves in the colony were concentrated in Boston free black community made up about 10% of the city’s population. o The slave trade was a central element of the region’s economy III. Pursuing Political, Religious and Individual Freedom Three types of political structure: provincial, proprietary, and charter o Provincial is most tightly controlled by the crown governor appointed by the crown New Hampshire, New York, Georgia, Carolinas, Virginia o Proprietary; governor appointed by the colony owner a little bit more political power Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland o Charter; most complicated, greatest about of political freedom, governor elected Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut Men, women, and marriage o Widely available land and plentiful natural resources allowed for greater fertility and thus encouraged more people to marry earlier in life. o Young marriages and large families were common but family sizes started to shrink by the end of the 1700s as wives gained more control over their own bodies. o New ideas governing romantic love helped to change the nature of husband-wife relationships o Americans began to view marriage as an emotionally fulfilling relationship rather than a strictly economic partnership. Colonial print culture o Books and other printed objects are made, including the relationship between the author and the publisher, the technical constraints of the printer, and the tastes of readers o Virginia in 1607, printing was regarded either as unnecessary or it was discouraged. o New England’s authors were content to publish in London, making the foundations of Stephen Daye’s first print shop in 1639 very shaky. o Printers made their money from printing sheets, not books o Philadelphia’s rise as the printing capital of the colonies began with the arrival of Benjamin Franklin in 1723, equal parts scholar and businessman, and waves of German immigrants created a demand for German-language press. The Enlightenment o Begins in Europe, an intellectual movement. o Glorifying human reason o Questioned traditional authority anti-Christian movement, as well as other religions o Deist Believes in the existence of god, but not a relevant god for everyday life. Thought religions were more like superstitions. o John Locke was particularly influential Separation of church and state, fundamental liberties. The First Great Awakening (c. 1730 - 1755) o Began unexpectedly in the Congregational churches of New England in the 1730’s o Spread through the 1740’s and 1750’s to Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists in the other Colonies. o Colonists wanted to return to a simpler lifestyle. o First signs of religious revival appeared in Jonathan Edwards’ congregation in Northampton, Massachusetts. Puritans o His most famous sermon was called “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.” 1734 these sermons sent his congregation into violent convulsions. Over 6 months the spasms spread to half of the 600 person-congregation. o The most famous itinerant preacher was George Whitefield the only type of faith that pleased God was heartfelt Former actor with a dramatic style of preaching and a simple message. o Number of people trying to hear Whitefield’s message were so large that he preached in the meadows at the edges of cities. to crowds of thousands and in one case over 20,000 in Philadelphia. IV. Seven Years’ War (1754 - 1763) o Of the 87 years between the Glorious Revolution (1688) and the American Revolution (1775), Britain was at war with France. o American militiamen fought for the British against French Catholics and their Indian allies. o Raiding parties would destroy houses and burn crops, but they would also take captives o France and Britain feuded over the boundaries of their respective North American empires. o 1754: British colonists and Native American allies, led by young George Washington, killed a French diplomat. o War did not fully begin until 1756, when British-allied Frederick II of Prussia invaded the neutral state of Saxony. o Massive coalition of France, Austria, Russia, and Sweden attacked Prussia and the few German states allied with Prussia o The Seven Years’ War ended with the peace treaties of Paris and Hubertusburg in 1763 V. Pontiac’s War (1763) Neolin o 1761, Neolin, a prophet, received a vision from his religion’s main deityMaster of Life only way to enter Heaven is to get rid of the corrupting influence, remove the British from Indian country o Preached the avoidance of alcohol, return to traditional rituals, and unity to his disciples, including Pontiac, an Ottawa leader. Pontiac o Pontiac took Neolin’s words to heart and sparked the beginning of what would become known as Pontiac’s War against British soldiers, traders, and settlers o Pontiac and 300 Indian warriors sought to take Fort Detroit by surprise in May 1763 o six-month siege of the British fort inspires more attacks on British forts and settlers. o In June, Ottawas and Ojibwes captured Fort Michilimackinac by pretending to play lacrosse outside the fort. They gathered guns that had been smuggled by Native American women, and killed almost half of the fort’s soldiers. o Pontiac’s War lasted until 1766. killing as many as 400 soldiers and 2000 settlers o Disease and a shortage of supplies ended the Indian war effort o July 1766 Pontiac met with William Johnson at Fort Ontario and settled for peace. VI. The Proclamation of 1763 o Issued in October, Royal Proclamation Line of 1763, which marked the Appalachian Mountains as the boundary between Indian country and the British colonies.
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