WCIV WEEK 4 NOTES
WCIV WEEK 4 NOTES History 2320-001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maricela Castro on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 2320-001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Bryan S. Glass in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization to Date in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 4 9/19 Ø Recap Ø Rise of imperialism amongst the western European powers as a direct result of coming into their own scientifically, leading to enhanced weaponry. Ø How did the economic systems operate? Ø Adam Smith o The Wealth of Nations § “Bible of Capitalism” o Most important book on economics ever written. Ø Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lines o Great book of reference Ø Politics is like a circle o Far Left and Far Right are pretty much about the same, (Ideologues) o Moderates (Common Sense) Ø Laissez Faire Model o Know the basics of supply and demand Ø Mercantilism is what Smith is railing against o The belief that in every economic transaction, there’s a winner and there’s a loser o Winner with all the $ o Loser is paying all the $ for what they have to be purchasing o In this society, you get your hands on as much gold and silver as much as you can. Ø Adam Smith says no, both people win. Ø Mercantilism – economy Ø Modern Banking System—the Dutch create it. o Based off the concept of credit o Loaning your money based on future projected earnings o Allows them to operate in debt o Before the Dutch invented this system, the only money as a country you could spend was the money you had in your treasury o The Dutch after this system, could spend all the way up to their credit line. Ø 1694—British adopt this system, Bank of England is established o allows England to borrow money at a very expansive rate, which will allow them to fight the French in this instance. o The English are very good at making sure they always pay at least the minimum on the loans they take out and on time. Ø French Kings borrow money and don’t pay it back, what happens? No one will lend money in the future, & credit score drops. Ø This will play a major role in leading up to the French revolution when we get there. HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 4 Ø England can fight and afford to fight these massive battles because they have the ability to borrow. They don’t have as much money as the French, but they can borrow more than the French actually has. Ø Bank of England makes sure the English pay their loans back. Ø Bank of England is a combination of private and public, shareholders, part of parliament. Ø William Patterson—realized how successful the Dutch were with the credit system, and said they should do it in England. o Will allow English to fight Spanish succession and to win it. Ø 18 century dominated by Anglo-French Warfare o Spanish Succession o Austrian Succession (1740-1748) § British seize the French port in Louisburg—Cape Breton Island § At the end of the war the French wanted Louisburg back § Madras—a port in India, the French were willing to (trade) give Madras up for Louisburg. § The British seized it to have something better in the long run that would help them with something bigger § Economic driven empire, all about making money (British Empire) o Seven Years War (1756-1763) § Winston Churchill said this war was truly the first world war because it’s fought on a global stage. § Main actors: British and French § War fought violently North America, India, Africa § Fort Duquesne – Pittsburgh • French Fort • There’s an attempt to take it, fails miserably, because of the French alliance with the Indians that they do so well with • British sold France’s allies (Indians) blankets contaminated with small pox • First use of germ warfare in the West • Many Indians died. § William Pitt the Elder HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 4 • Takes control, says if we want to win this war we have to start spending money on the war like we want to win it. • British at this point weren’t fully engaged in this war • Pitt says this is the war that is going to make us as an empire and break the French • Result of this war will eventually break the French • Pitt starts spending tons of money, could get in the wrong hands § Battle of Quebec (Sept, 1759) most important battle in the war • General Wolfe put in charge of seizing Quebec City • Spends the whole year of 1758 camped out trying to figure out how he will ever lay seize to this city. He couldn’t figure it out, he goes back home. • 1759 he has one more campaigning season to seize Quebec City • Develops ulcers as a result of this stress of how to get on Plains of Abraham • He can’t find a way • Late September, he doesn’t have a clue what he’s going to do and late in the night is told that Plains of Abraham isn’t being guarded he gets everyone ready to go in the night, they’re ready for battle on the Plains. • Military commander of Quebec City, instead of staying in the city, he brings his army out onto the Plains of Abraham to meet Wolfe’s army. He led safety of security to the city. Not the best decision. • Brutal battle, French commander killed instantaneously, and Wolfe is injured, dies. • Wipes France out of Canada. § Calcutta, Bengal • French are removed from all of their bases in India following the Seven Years War • Out of India, & Canada § Result of the Seven Years • Ended by Treaty of Paris • Naval and trading supremacy in Atlantic, Indian Oceans as well as the Caribbean Sea. • Britain now controlled the vast majority of the world’s commerce • In turn, British use this money to fund the industrial revolution. • When the war’s over William Pit the Elder goes out of office because of health issues, goes insane. His successors come in, say that the North American colonists need to pay for most of the war being fought on North America land and began taxing them. • North America says “no taxation without representation” • Pit the Elder says you’re crazy if you try to tax the American colonists. Ø 9/21/16 HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 4 Ø QUEEN ELIZABETH Ø request in class to talk more about Queen Elizabeth I Ø Sets up East India Co., Virginia co., britsh Ø If a king inherits the throne, wife is queen, if Queen is named, King will be named prince. Ø With Elizabeth I o Daughter of Henry VIII + Anne Boleyn o Henry VIII until 1547 o Elizabeth has a half-brother named Edward, half-sister named Mary o Mary I is a devoted catholic o Edward VI 1547-1553 o Mary will be given the nickname Bloody Mary § The Protestants of England give her this name § She rounds up the high-ranking Protestants and burns them at the stake § She doesn’t last long, she thinks she’s pregnant, it’s a massive cancerous tumor in her stomach that gave the appearance that she was with child, cancer killed her in 1558. She had her sister Elizabeth arrested, and thought about signing a warrant for execution so she couldn’t become queen, decides not to. § Elizabeth said to Mary exactly what she thought early on life, that she was bound and determined to fulfill the Protestant Reformation put in by her father would survive. § Elizabeth 1558-1603 § Ruling is dominated by struggle to keep English § Mary, Elizabeth, Edward § Henry VIII wasn’t happy with Anne Boleyn, she couldn’t produce him a male heir, made up a lie she was sleeping around, executed for “sleeping with her brother.” o Netherlands native of Protestants § Fight for independence against Spain § William of Orange is the leader of this struggle of independence. § Handsome J § Revolution succeeds § Rebellion—during the struggle of independence § To history a rebellion fails § William of Orange was the first ever political figure assassinated with a gun, by his own countrymen. He thought by assassinating William of Orange that he would get a thank- you from the Spanish, instead angry Dutchmen killed the assassinator. HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 4 § Rebellion continues with the assistance of Elizabeth, into Dutch rebellion against the Spanish. § Because of her support of the Protestant Dutch, she’s trying to throw off the control of Spanish tyranny, the Spanish armada sails towards England. § She was supporting the Dutch and their rebellion § Elizabeth I’s reign is defined by the defeat of the Spanish Armada. § She vanquished the most powerful empire the world had ever known. § Elizabeth believed it might end right if God is on their side § Sir Walter Rally § Put water in the green kegs, Spanish drank the tainted water § The armada is sailing up and are sick § Spanish Armada had big ships, slow, hard to maneuver § English ships small, fast, easy to maneuver § In attempt to go back through the English Channel around Britain, up ahead Spanish Armada get hit by a massive storm, known as the Protestant Wind of 1588, many ships are destroyed, quite a few crashed on the Irish coast, stranded. • Black Irish—with Spanish blood § At this point in time most Catholics were Mediterranean people. § Defeat the Spanish Armada § Elizabeth calls for invasion of Spain § Big as a failure as the Spanish Armada when they attempted to invade England. § She never marries, she’s called the “Virgin Queen” § We know of 2 men she had romantic relations with • One tried to rebel against her, he lost his head in result • Sir Francis Bacon was her illegitimate son • In her mind she could never marry because then no one would look to her. She was the rightful heir. • Advisors: o Burghley—chief advisor for most of Queen Elizabeth I reign. o Walsingham—her head spy, intelligence. Dedicated to Elizabeth, anyone who gets in her way, they disappear. § Queen Elizabeth I responsible for: • Responsible for ensuring Protestantism thrives and survives. • Virginia and East India company. HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 4 • Helping lay foundation of English empire, soon to be British empire, and the largest empire world has ever known. § Last Tutor monarch Ø When she dies 1603 throne passes to her cousin, King James VI o First Stuart monarch Finishing off from 9/19 Ø goods heavily sought after from colonies Ø Sugar, tobacco, cotton, rice, cocoa, and coffee o Caffeine are in both cocoa and coffee o Tobacco has nicotine o Liked because of their drugs J Thank you for reading! PLEASE CONTACT ME IF THERE’S ANY ERRORS OR MISSING POINTS I’D BE GLAD TO ADDRESS THEM
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