INS3003 notes 9-20
INS3003 notes 9-20 INS3003
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Ralph on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INS3003 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Affairs in International Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
September 20, 2016 Overview of lecture Key Points Introduction to Neo-Liberalism 1. What realism doesn’t explain… 2. Liberalism a. History of cooperation (Westphalia forward) b. Historical roots c. Classical liberalism d. Neo-liberalism i. Collective security ii. Cooperation under anarchy iii. Reciprocity 1. Implications 2. Interdependence 3. Collective goods 4. Absolute/ Non-zero sum gains (in contrast to relative/zero-sum gains) 3. Prisoners dilemma according to liberals Terms to Know International Organizations (IO): Intergovernmental organization (IGO) Non-governmental Organizations (NGO) Multinational Corporations (MINC) Realist perspectives that argue liberalism States are forced in to self-help American foreign policy – peace through strength o When you’re strong enough you can deter threats Realists say that power transition upset and problems o Transition of power from UK to US was peaceful o Who’s to say that the rise of china would be harmful? Could be peaceful In a potential multipolar system, all powers would have nuclear power o Would serve as deterrence US, China, Russia, India, France Deterrence would prevent conflict Since the end of the cold war, IGOs, NGOs and MNCs have increased Cooperation between countries has become stronger o Realists say this cooperation is not guaranteed because states always act based on self-interest Realists promote diplomacy but don’t believe it can guarantee safety o Argue that you have to be prepared “speak softly but carry a big stick”- Teddy Roosevelt ] utilize diplomacy but be ready to use force if it fails national security interest is top concern o never make yourself vulnerable realism was the dominant theory during the cold war o fitting for the time Neo-liberalism dominate now Emphasis on cooperation Mankind has progressed towards greater cooperation and peace Starting point: treaty of Westphalia 1648- ended the 30 years war o European powers recognized each others sovereignty First time that the European powers would admit power to one another o Concert of Europe: 1815, major powers agreed that instead of going to war, they would try to verbally settle disputes o Post WWI attempt for peace League of Nations- not just European powers, but a global scale Why did it fail? Was it the idea or the institution? Realists- idea Liberals- institution o Major flaw was the US not joining o Post WWII attempt for peace UN Main goal to maintain peace, collective security Since the UN, wars have gotten smaller No major power war since WWII Historical Roots Enlightenment o ideas Promoted the rights of the individual Governments should work for the people People should have a say in government o 2 things come from enlightenment liberal movement democracy US to establish this first French revolution o People demanded rights and the ideas spread through Europe classical liberalism Political, social and economic change in Europe Political: as you empower people they become citizens instead of subjects government works for people people have say in government voting rights democracy Social: as they became active citizens more rights came about Economic: industrial revolution, capitalism, free market enterprise o Gives people chance to benefit from politics and economics Classical Liberalism Constitution based on o Granted us rights defined by liberalism o Neo-Liberalism Develops in 2oth century Europe Modern theory of international affairs “Liberalism” refers to this version, not classical Main focus o Institutions “Institutional liberalism” o Cooperation o Communication o Collective efforts o Promotion of democracy Pre-cursor for American idealism Liberals say the world works differently now then it did in post cold war o Realist model is outdated o Democracy has spread o Technology Nuclear weaponry more widespread Prevent war, not catalyst for war o Global inter-connection with powers across the globe through IGOs, NGOs, MNCs Less likely to go to war with each other Increased communication UN as buffer Many actors, not just the state September 22, 2016 Overview of lecture Key Points Neo-Liberalism, Continued 1. Prisoners’ Dilemma According to he Liberals a. Repetitive Contact i. Shadow of the future ii. Cost of defection b. Mutuality of interests i. Robert Axelrod Study ii. Tit-for-Tat 2. Ways to increase the Cost of Defection a. Reputation Costs b. Monitoring i. Ex. Nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) 3. Complex Interdependence (pros and cons) 4. International Organizations (pros and cons) 5. Critiques of Liberalism… a. Ethnocentrism b. One Size Fits All Model Prisoner’s Dilemma Rethought Prisoner B Do not confess Confess 1 year Parole Do not confess 1 year Life Prisoner A Life 20 years Confess Parole 20 years Liberals say states do talk, so prisoners talk and they talk often Collective effort o States work with each other to achieve common goals More rational o Both prisoners ending up with 1 year compromise Reality for US Repetitive contact: meeting many times with other player o Creates relationship Ideally trust positive relationship o Chance to make up for “wrongs” o Shadow of the future We expect to meet again and are able to expect what that contact will be like o Cost of defection Cost of misbehaving Sanctions, trade embargos etc. “Punishment” When you increase the cost of defection, it becomes more costly for states to behave Hopefully they wont defect because of this Mutuality of interest o Assumes we have common goals Ex: survival, thriving, trade expansion, economic increase, security, environment, clean air, peace Liberals focus on finding these commonalities and using them to the advantage to work together Better to focus on things that bring us together than things that drive us apart o Allows us to have friendly relations with states that otherwise might be enemies Think North Korea- it is in everyone’s best interest for North Korea to be happy. Though China and Japan have problems, they have common ground of controlling North Korea Robert Axelrod Global call for people to enter strategies for PD, ran them in a computer simulator o Found that people suggested either cheating or cooperating Strategy that won: Tit-for-tat o Reciprocity do to one what they did for you o Reciprocity where the first move was positive If first is positive, every move there after will be positive Opportunity for defection and instances for defection tapered off because the results for cooperation were much better Cooperation best results in PD Shadow of the future and repetitive contact - positive actions increased chance of cooperation o Liberals say that we should be talking with other countries to see these results Ways to increase the cost of defection Because we have common goals, most states want to cooperate o Those that don’t, we find ways to encourage them 1. Emphasize the reputation cost States care about their reputation Hard power – use force Soft power –persuasion o Diplomacy Damaged reputation increased defection costs Monitoring o External as opposed to internal with reputation o If somebody is actually keeping an eye on you to make sure you are doing what you say, people may be more inclined to keep their ord o NPT example Signed in 1968 with the goal to control the possession of nukes and to prevent proliferation. Can possess nuclear energy, but trying to stop the offensive capability of nuclear power Pakistan, India, Israel, south Sudan, - no signature North Korea- signed and pulled out Complex Interdependence Deepening our ties with other states o More connected we become, the more someone will lose if they break ties o If we increase our ties increase cooperation International organizations We come together to work together o Mutual involvement in IO increased mutualism o Liberals believe they have more authority than the states Critiques of Liberalism from non-western world Ethnocentric view point o Seeing your culture as superior to others Democracy, capitalism etc. o If we try to force our ways on others it can lead to more schisms One size fits all model o Liberals don’t believe in
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