Learning notes Psyc 2010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Learning What is learning? -A relatively permanent change in behavior that occur through experience -Behaviorism- theory of learning that focuses only on observable behaviors, not mental activity -Associative Learning- a n association is made between two events -Conditioning- processing of learning associations How do we learn? -We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence -2,000 years ago, Aristotle suggested this law of association. Then 200 years ago Locke and Hume reiterated this law Associative Learning; -Learning to associate one stimulus with another -Learning to associate a response with a consequence *Famous psychologist Watson After observing children in the field, Watson hypothesized that the fearful response of children to loud noises is an innate unconditioned response. He wanted to test the notion that by following the principles of the procedure now known as "classical conditioning", he could use this unconditioned response to condition a child to fear a distinctive stimulus that normally would not be feared by a child Classical Conditioning How was it first operationalized….? -Pavlov's dogs; <During the 1890s Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was looking at salivation in dogs in response to being fed, when he noticed that his dogs would begin to salivate whenever he entered the room, even when he was not bringing them food.> -Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- A stimulus that unconditionally, naturally and automatically, triggers a response without prior learning -Unconditioned Response (UCR)- U nlearned, naturally occurring response to the USC -Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an US, comes to trigger a conditioned response -Conditioned Response (CR)- The learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) -Acquisition- The initial learning of the stimulus- response link. Neutral stimulus should come about .5 seconds before the USC -Salience- oes the CS “stand out”? (e.x. Soft Russian Ballad vs Bell) -Intensity- Usually, the more intense a UCS, the more readily conditioning takes place -Frequency- The more often the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are paired together the more likely conditioning is to take place -The time between the UCS and CS pairing is important -Contiguity- onnectedness in time and space, needs to occur close together -Contingency- P redictability of the occurrence of one event in the presence of another -Generalization- A new stimulus that is similar to the original CS is likely to elicit a response that is similar to the CR -Discrimination- The process of learning to respond to a certain stimuli and not to others -Extinction- he weakening of the CR in the absence of the UCS -Spontaneous Recovery- A CR can recur after a time delay without further conditioning *Baby Albert (John Watson experiment) Operant Conditioning -Type of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence -Voluntary behavior -Edward Thorndike; Cats in puzzle boxes -Law of Effect- Over time, behaviors that are rewarded are strengthened. Behaviors that have negative consequences are weakened -Acquisition- ccurs because a certain behavior was reinforced -Extinction- erson will no longer perform behavior if not reinforced -Generalization- Behavior can generalize if wider range of behaviors are reinforced -B.F. Skinner; Father of behaviorism -Skinner Box -Principles of Reinforcement- The process by which a stimulus or an event strengthens or increases the probability of a behavior or an event that it follows (Positive and Negative) -Primary Reinforcer- An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink -Conditioned Reinforcer- A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer -Extinction- he weakening of the CR in the absence of the USC -Spontaneous Recovery- A CR can recur after a time delay without further conditioning *Little Albert- Watson -Primary Reinforcer- An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink -Conditioned Reinforcer- A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer Ration Schedules; -Fixed Ratio Schedule- Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses -Variable Ratio Schedule- Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses (e.x. Behaviors like gambling or fishing) -Interval Schedules- -Fixed Interval Schedule- Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed (e.x. Prepare for an exam only when the exam is close by) -Variable Interval Schedule- Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals which produces slow, steady responses (e.x. Pop quiz) *Schedules of Reinforcement -Fixed Ratio Schedule- Rewarded every 10th time -Variable Ratio Schedule- Rewarded on average every 10th time -Fixed interval Schedule- Rewarded every 10 minutes -Variable interval Schedule- Reward on average every 10 minutes -Punishment- An aversive event that decreases the likelihood a behavior will occur -Positive Punishment -Negative Punishment Advantages and Disadvantages of using punishment… -Can enforce better or worse behaviors -Intrinsic Motivation- The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake -Extrinsic Motivation- The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards tor threats of punishment -Adverse Conditioning- Avoiding a particular behavior or setting as a consequence of punishment in association with the given behavior or setting -Premack Principle- A more desirable activity serves as a reinforcement for a less desirable one -Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive
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