Foundations of Biology 1 - Chapter 3 - Organic Molecules
Foundations of Biology 1 - Chapter 3 - Organic Molecules Biology 221
Popular in Foundations of Biology 1
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexie Kostreva on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 221 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Daniel P. Herman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
Reviews for Foundations of Biology 1 - Chapter 3 - Organic Molecules
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/26/16
Foundations in Biology 1 Chapter 3 – Organic Molecules What makes a molecule organic? o Characteristics Contain carbon Exceptions: Carbides, carbonates, oxides, cyanides Most contain carbon-carbon and/or carbon hydrogen bonds Exception: Urea Many are essential for life Vitalism Some are synthetic Tefzel The magic of carbon o Can form single, double, and triple bonds 4 valence electrons 2 inner shell electrons o Can bond to a wide variety of other atoms o Can form linear, branched, or ring-like structures o Can bond to a variety of functional groups Many biologically important organic molecules are polymers o Begins when two monomers combine in a dehydration reaction o Elongation of the polymer continues with more dehydration reactions o Broken down by hydrolysis reactions Classes of organic molecules o Carbohydrates Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ration Monosaccharides Simplest forms of carbohydrates Reducing sugars Most common in biology Hexoses and pentose’s Can exist as linear chains or ring structures Glucose properties Very water soluble Highly reduced molecule Good source of energy o Carbohydrates: Disaccharides Polymer consisting of two disaccharides covalently linked by a glycosidic bond Disaccharides are reducing sugars o Carbohydrates: Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides Polymers consisting of monosaccharide subunits joined by glycosidic bonds Biologically important polysaccharides Peptidoglycan o B 1,4 linked N-acetylmuramic acid, N- acetylglucosamine Chitin o B 1,4 linked N-acetylmuramic acid Glycosaminoglycans o Long, unbranched polymers consisting of repeating disaccharide subunits o The disaccharide subunit contains one amino sugar o Lipids Composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen (hydrocarbon) and a little oxygen Fats, oils, waxes, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, hormones, vitamins Properties Nonpolar molecules Varied in structure (no repeating subunits) Functions Membranes, energy storage, signaling o Lipids: Fatty Acids Hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group at one end Saturated fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids o Lipids: Triglycerides o Lipids: Phospholipids Bilayer Polar heads out nonpolar tails in o Lipids: Steroids and other complex lipids All steroids have 4 rings Number and type of functional groups allow you to tell them apart o Proteins Polymers composed of amino acid subunits joined by peptide bonds o Proteins: Peptides and Polypeptides Structure One or more polypeptide chains Globular, filamentous Can be modified with other molecules o Glycoproteins o Lipoproteins Encoded by genes o Proteins: Influences on Structure Hydrogen bonds Ionic bonds / polar interactions Hydrophobic effect Van der Waals forces Disulfide bridges o Proteins: Effect of Structure on Function Anfinsen’s Dogma The native structure of small, globular proteins is determined only by the amino acid sequence of the protein o Proteins: Functional Domains Independently folded region(s) on a protein that performs a characteristic function o Nucleic Acids Polymer consisting of nucleotide subunits joined using phosphodiester bonds Types of nucleic acids Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'