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Foundations of Biology 1 - Chapter 3 - Organic Molecules

by: Lexie Kostreva

Foundations of Biology 1 - Chapter 3 - Organic Molecules Biology 221

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire > Biology > Biology 221 > Foundations of Biology 1 Chapter 3 Organic Molecules
Lexie Kostreva

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About this Document

These notes go over what we covered in chapter 3 dealing with organic molecules.
Foundations of Biology 1
Daniel P. Herman
Class Notes
Biology, organic, Molecules, Lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, amino acids, Nucleic Acids
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexie Kostreva on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 221 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Daniel P. Herman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Foundations in Biology 1 Chapter 3 – Organic Molecules  What makes a molecule organic? o Characteristics  Contain carbon  Exceptions: Carbides, carbonates, oxides, cyanides  Most contain carbon-carbon and/or carbon hydrogen bonds  Exception: Urea  Many are essential for life  Vitalism  Some are synthetic  Tefzel  The magic of carbon o Can form single, double, and triple bonds  4 valence electrons  2 inner shell electrons o Can bond to a wide variety of other atoms o Can form linear, branched, or ring-like structures o Can bond to a variety of functional groups  Many biologically important organic molecules are polymers o Begins when two monomers combine in a dehydration reaction o Elongation of the polymer continues with more dehydration reactions o Broken down by hydrolysis reactions  Classes of organic molecules o Carbohydrates  Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ration  Monosaccharides  Simplest forms of carbohydrates  Reducing sugars  Most common in biology  Hexoses and pentose’s  Can exist as linear chains or ring structures  Glucose properties  Very water soluble  Highly reduced molecule  Good source of energy o Carbohydrates: Disaccharides  Polymer consisting of two disaccharides covalently linked by a glycosidic bond  Disaccharides are reducing sugars o Carbohydrates: Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides  Polymers consisting of monosaccharide subunits joined by glycosidic bonds  Biologically important polysaccharides  Peptidoglycan o B 1,4 linked N-acetylmuramic acid, N- acetylglucosamine  Chitin o B 1,4 linked N-acetylmuramic acid  Glycosaminoglycans o Long, unbranched polymers consisting of repeating disaccharide subunits o The disaccharide subunit contains one amino sugar o Lipids  Composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen (hydrocarbon) and a little oxygen  Fats, oils, waxes, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, hormones, vitamins  Properties  Nonpolar molecules  Varied in structure (no repeating subunits)  Functions  Membranes, energy storage, signaling o Lipids: Fatty Acids  Hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group at one end  Saturated fatty acids  Monounsaturated fatty acids  Polyunsaturated fatty acids o Lipids: Triglycerides o Lipids: Phospholipids  Bilayer  Polar heads out nonpolar tails in o Lipids: Steroids and other complex lipids  All steroids have 4 rings  Number and type of functional groups allow you to tell them apart o Proteins  Polymers composed of amino acid subunits joined by peptide bonds o Proteins: Peptides and Polypeptides  Structure  One or more polypeptide chains  Globular, filamentous  Can be modified with other molecules o Glycoproteins o Lipoproteins  Encoded by genes o Proteins: Influences on Structure  Hydrogen bonds  Ionic bonds / polar interactions  Hydrophobic effect  Van der Waals forces  Disulfide bridges o Proteins: Effect of Structure on Function  Anfinsen’s Dogma  The native structure of small, globular proteins is determined only by the amino acid sequence of the protein o Proteins: Functional Domains  Independently folded region(s) on a protein that performs a characteristic function o Nucleic Acids  Polymer consisting of nucleotide subunits joined using phosphodiester bonds  Types of nucleic acids  Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA)  Ribonucleic acid (RNA)


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