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Chapter 7 Notes

by: Samantha Colona

Chapter 7 Notes CIS 429

Samantha Colona
GPA 3.27

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Notes from the text
Information Systems in Business
Richard A. Johnson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Colona on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 429 at Missouri State University taught by Richard A. Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Information Systems in Business in BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS (BIS) at Missouri State University.



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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 7 – storing organizational information – databases Storing Information Using a Relational Database Management System Database- maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses) Database management systems (DBMS) – creates, reads, updates, and deletes data in a database while controlling access and security  Examples: Microsoft access, File Maker, oracle  Uses 3 primary data models for organizing information: hierarchical, network, and the relational database Two primary tools in available for retrieving a data base 1. Query by example (QBE) tool - help graphically design the answer to a question against a database. 2. Structured query language (SQL)- asks users to write lines of code to answer questions against a database Data element (data field) - smallest or basic unit of information  Example: customers name, address, email Data models- logical data structures that detail the relationships among date elements using graphics or pictures Metadata- provides details about data  Example of meta data for an image – size and resolution  Example of metadata for customer entry- text, number, date Data dictionary – compiles all of the metadata about the data elements in the data model Storing Data Elements in Entities and Attributes Entity- also known as a table, store information about a person, place, thing, transaction, or even event Attributes- also called columns or fields, are the data elements associated with an entity Record- a collection of relate data elements (rows in a table Creating Relationships through Keys Primary key- is a field that uniquely identifies a given record in a table Foreign key – is a primary key of one of the table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide logical relationship between the two tables Using a Relational Database for Business Advantages 1. Increased Flexibility a. Users need database to allow them to access information in whatever way best suits their needs b. Physical view of information – deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device c. Logical view of information- focuses on how individual users logically access information to meet their own particular business needs 2. Increased Scalability and Performance 3. Reduce Information Redundancy a. Information redundancy- duplication of data or the storage of the same data in multiple places b. Redundant data causes issues for customers and employees 4. Increased Information Integrity (Quality) a. Information integrity- measures the quality of information b. Integrity constraints- rules that help ensure the quality of information c. 2 Types i. 1. Relational Integrity – enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints ex: order zero pounds of raw material from an employer ii. Business critical - enforces business rules vital to an organizations success and often require more insight ad knowledge than relational integrity constraints 1. Grocery store enforces no returns after 15 days 5. Increased Information Security Driving Websites with Data  Easy to manage content  Easy to store large amounts of data  Easy to eliminate human error Content creator- person responsible for creating the original website content Content editor- person responsible for updating and maintaining website content Static information- includes fixed data that change based on user actions example: movie ticket availability, airline prices Dynamic catalog- area of a website that stores information about product in a database Data driven website- an interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database Integrating Information among Multiple Databases Integration- allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other  Without integration, organizations will 1. Spend considerable time entering the same information 2. Suffer from redundant information  Two types 1. Forward integration- takes information entered into given system and automatically sends to all downstream systems and processes 2. Backwards integrations- takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes


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