History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #5
History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #5 1302
Popular in History of U.S. Since 1865
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Popular in History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Manuel B Ramirez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. Since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
History 1302 September 21, 2016 Professor Ramirez Lecture Notes KEY PEOPLE KEY INFORMATION KEY TERMS The Growth of Cities (late 1800s, early 1900s) By 1920, most Americans livedincities (~50%) Reasons for urban growth o Availabilityof Jobs to take advantage of economic opportunities o Technological innovations intransportation encouraged growth in cities Railroads Introduction of steam poweredships, allowedimmigrants to reach the states quickly and cheaply Largest Cities (1900) o NYC: 3.4 million population o Chicago: 1.7 Million population Sources of Urban Growth Rural to Urban Migration – individuals moved from the countryside into urban areas o Northeast (as a result of overpopulation and the introduction of machines into farming) Farms in the NE part of USA, livedon smaller farms Smaller farms requiredless upkeep from employees Debt caused a loss of land o West Marked the beginning of the Great Migration Blacks o 32 Cities w/ more than 10,000 Blacks (1900) o Migrated in order to escape poverty, racism, and oppression inthe south and deep south o City with the largest African American population was the nation’s capital, Washington D.C. o They found very little opportunity for work inthe cities (had to find workin personal and domestic services:cook, janitors, domestic servants) Black Elite emerged: ministers, teachers, etc. o Black American culture: newspapers,churches, sporting events Immigrants Most important source of Urban growth o Southern and eastern Europeans o Individuals who arrivedin the US inthe late 1800s, were receivedwith resentment o In the 1920s, immigration established quotas, people who had diseases, disabilities,or those who would pose a public charge werenot granted passage into the US Ethnic Cities (1890) o Cities comprised either of immigrants or of the childrenof immigrants o NYC: 80% of the population was either immigrants/children of immigrants o Chicago: 87% “New” Immigrants o Old = came generally from northern Europe (English, Germans, Irish, Scandinavians) They were better educated and skilled than the “new immigrants” Business people,farmers, and skilled workers Irish werethe exception to this generality o New = came from southern and easternEurope (Italians, Greeks, slavs,Russian- Jews) Had lower levelsof education and less skill Factors Encouraging Migration Loss of their land in Europe o Introduction of commercial farming, small farmers were unable to compete with them and as a result lost their lands Introduction of Manufactured Goods o Artisans could not compete with companies who manufactured goods Population Growth Economic Background of Immigrants o Not the poorest of the poor o The poor did not migrate to the US due to the lack of funds to finance their trip Methods to Attract Immigrants Labor Agents o Companies hired individuals inorder to recruit workers Family Contacts o Most popular form of attracting immigrants o Families who had alreadymoved to the US would communicate withtheir home land about the jobs available,wages, availablehousing More likely to migrate due to Armed with information, they know people who are alreadyestablishedin the US (more likelyto be successful) Many settled in the NYC lower east side Arrival in the US Ethnic Neighborhoods o Encountered familiar food, theaters, churches, and other resources intheir native languages Many Returned Home o As a result of home sickness, poor economic conditions inthe US, others wanted to make money and return home o ~56% of central and southern Italians returned to their native lands o ~35-40% of Germans returned to their native lands Upward Mobility Varied o Highest rate of upward mobility (abilityto improve one’s economic conditions) Jews Germans o Groups like the Russian Jewssettled here permanently and didnot return to their native lands Immigration Restriction Great deal of hostility toward immigrants Assimilation vs. Restriction o Assimilation encouraged these immigrants to assimilate to American ways o Restriction = limiting the number of immigrants coming into the US Blamed for Social Problems o Spread of crime o Disease o Overcrowding o Labor unrest Josiah Strong, Our Country (1887) o Held a very negative view towards these immigrants o A protestant minister o Accused them of committing crimes, immorality, furnishing recruits for socialism, and tried to convert protestants to Catholicism American Productive Society (1887) o Anti-immigration organization as wellas an anti-Catholic organization o Created by protestants inOhio o Catholics werebeing scapegoated for the depression Immigration Restriction League o Created in Boston in 1896 o Wanted a literacy test for prospective immigrants as a condition for entry into the United States Kept out southern and eastern Europeans because their literacyrates were not very high To limit the dumping of criminals, illiterateson the US Racial theories Anglo-Saxon Complex o Believed that they were superior to all people o A “true American” was of Anglo-Saxon background Eugenics o A pseudoscience o Believed that there are superior people (who possess superior traits that they pass on to subsequent generations) and inferior people (who also pass these traits along) Superior = intelligence Inferior = more prone to alcoholism, mentally ill o Promoted high birth rates among superior people,and limiting birth rates of inferior people Use of abortions and sterilizationtechniques to carrythis out (End of Lecture for Sept 21 ) Dillingham Report (1907) o Used to study immigration impacts, it was temporary o Approx... 1.3 million immigrants entered the US o Commission comprised of pseudoscientists and concluded that new immigrants were less likely to assimilate than old immigrants o New immigrants were alsoinferior physically, mentally, and linguistically They wanted a requiredliteracytest for all incoming immigrants Urban Problems Housing o Tenements Housing for the urban poor A building that concentrates as many people into the leastamount of space possible in order to reduce overhead costs 1 in 5 children living intenements would pass awaybecause of the conditions Tenement owners could make a lot of money by recruiting as many renters as possible(lacked central heating and plumbing, no public restrooms, lack of windows) Lack of housing legislationto regulate the standards and upkeep of buildings Hunger Crime o Increased in cities during the late 1800s Some crimes were violent and often blamed on immigrants Increased need for policedepartments, but officers were often corrupt and this led to police brutality o One belief was that if these people continued to live insuch a deprivedway(no light, air, etc.) then it was more likely that they would have a tendency towards committing crimes, becoming alcoholics,etc. Overcrowding Fires o Lack of fire codes for building and fire proof buildings o San Francisco Fire of 1906, ledto the destruction of many parts of that city As a result, fire proof buildings developedas wellas fire departments Disease o Largely experienced due to the improper disposalof bodies o Yellow Fever epidemic inMemphis killed~5,000 individuals in1878 o Dysentery o Influenza o Typhoid o Tuberculosis, 8000 deaths per year o High death and sickness rates Poverty o Slums built by men and women, poor people were blamed for their own condition (thought they were lazy and unmotivated) o Street Arabs Children abandoned by parents, orphans, runaways Survived because of handouts and searching the streets for food The Environment o Improper disposal of human and industrial waste often compromised the city’s drinking water, encouraged the spreadof disease o Many urban residents also kept stock animals (cows,horses, and pigs) o Air pollution caused by factories, stoves, and furnaces (contributed to respiratory diseases) o By the early 1900s most cities had created sewer systems to address contamination and pollution in the workplace (reducing lead exposure) o Alice Hamilton A leading reformer, an investigator for the US Bureau of Labor Urban Political Machines Emerged Due to Power Vacuum o City governments were dividedinefficiently so bosses took advantage of the situation to make money Bosses o Ran these urban politicalmachines o Bosses had candidates they were hoping to elect to the city council, obtained votes by giving loans, services,and food to individual o The candidates elected were requiredto pay the bosses backfor their aid in election Produced corruption o Bosses stole licenses, acceptedbribes and kickbacks, protected gamblers as well as places of prostitution Responsible for modernizing cities o Providing servicesto urban residents like paving roads,building sewersand city lights Factors contributing to the riseof political machines o Immigrants needed the services they provided o The rich benefited through their dealings with the bosses Leisure and Recreation People had more time to devote towardleisure and recreation Middle Class o Had weekends off, evenings off, and had vacationtime Working Class o Less Hours worked o Usually had Sunday off of work Distinction between work and leisure Saloons Appealed to working class and immigrants o Middle class Americans did not frequent saloons. They drank at home, private clubs, hotels Negative aspects o Promoted violence o Became centers for prostitution and gambling o Spread of crime o Encouraged alcoholism Served a purpose o One of the few places that the working class could get a safe drink (due to the pollution from tenements making the drinking water poor quality) o Reinforced ethnic ties Specific groups attended certainsaloons o Offered men the abilityto lookthrough magazines/newspapers at job opportunities Came under attack o White protestant middle class women o Believed that saloons destroyed the family o Religious dimension: protestant women protested saloons, many of the people who frequented the saloons were catholic (they believed that the Catholics were getting out of control) Vaudeville Popular form of entertainment inthe late 1800s and early1900s A form of theater o Consisted of Variety Acts Comedy routines, dances, skits, performances Could be raunchy at times Often held discriminatory viewsand portrayed stereotypes o Sunday school circuit Outlawed the use of suggestive language Movies First medium of mass entertainment Initially appealed to the working class and immigrants o Because it was a cheap and relativelyquick form of entertainment “Peep Shows” o This is what the first movies were called o Individual devices for viewing films o Projector introduced in1896, which allowedmovies to be shown on screen Nickelodeons o The first movie theaters o Introduced in Philadelphia in 1905 o Only had to pay 5 cents in order to enter the theater o Appealed to working class Americans o Middle class Americans avoidedthe theater o Criticized by upper class and middle classAmericans who attended symphonies, art museums, and libraries The Allure/Emergence of Mass Sport Critics o Prior to the 1880s, viewedthat viewing/playing sports to be a waste of time Benefits o Health, morals, build character, and divert sexual urges o Belief that Masculinity had decreasedamong males so sports offered a wayto get that back Muscular Christianity Baseball Most popular spectator sport Origins traced to England No single person invented baseball o Rules established were put inplace to suit the owners o Varied place to place Knickerbocker baseballleague (1845) o Baseball became an organized sport at this time through this league o They documented the official rules of baseball Cincinnati Red Stockings (1869) o First professional team o Players received $1000 per year National League (1876) o Created to appeal to middle class Americans by charging 50 cents, did not offer alcohol, and did not playon Sundays American Association, later the American League (1901) o Appealed to the working class by charging only 25 cents, soldalcohol, played on Sundays Resembled big business o Baseball players, like factory workers, specializedin a position o There are rules, standardization, and management in baseball o Often spies,fines against players to control the players o Reserve clause Remained in effect from earlyon inbaseball until 1975 Player had to be released,traded, or sold to another team if they wanted to switch teams (this gave owners tremendous power over their players…contracts signed) Baseball’sDemocratic Appeal “The spectator at a ball game is no longer a statesman, a lawyer,broker, doctor, merchant, or artisan, but just plaineveryday man, with a heart full of fraternity and good willto all his fellow men.” Benefits of Baseball “Playing baseball“will…occupyleisure time in healthy exercise counteracting the growing tendency to visit saloons and other places of resort withwhich the city abounds, thus saving them from early immorality…those who hang around the billiardsaloons and liqueur shops, constantly complaining of a lackof exercise and consequent loss of appetite, would do well to join one of the baseball clubs, and take regular exercise with them.” – Detroit Free Press, 1859 Myths: poor men allowedto become wealthier through playing baseball (but they did not have the time, means, or space to practice or even play) Football Second most popular sport Appealed to elite Americans o Because it originated incolleges and universities o During this time, wealthy individuals were those in attendance of universities Originally resembled soccer, later on resembled rugby First game played in 1869: Princeton vs. Rutgers Walter Camp o Revolutionized the sport o Coach at Yale o Ran his team like it was a corporation instilling efficiency and teamwork o Introduced first downs, had to obtain five yards before first down NCAA (1906) o Created to write down the rules for football in order to reduce injuries o Established in 1889 under the guidance of George Halas (End of lecture for Sept 23 ) Boxing Appealed to working class and immigrants
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