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Week 5

by: Nozima Notetaker

Week 5 PHIL 1050

Nozima Notetaker

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About this Document

Ethics Theories
Intro to Philosophy
Dr. Archer Joel
Class Notes
Utilitarianism, Deontology, ethics, philosophy
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nozima Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1050 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Archer Joel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Philosophy in Philosophy at Saint Louis University.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
09/19/2016 Moral objectivism- right or wrong are independent of cultures and personal views. Moral values are discovered and are not invented. Argument from relativity (J.L Mackie)- look at the broad range of cultures in the world. If there is a such a big diversity of views. If there is a big diversity then it does not mean that there are different moral views. Argument from queerness (Mackie)- a scientific view will not tell you what is beautiful. Logic and math are not scientifically discovered. Moral theories : We are assuming that morality is objective; how do you decide which actions are evil? 1) Utilitarianism: a. Save as many life as possible. b. The view that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to promote unhappiness. c. John Stuart Mill (1806-1973) i. Most influential philosopher in the 19 century. d. 2) Deontology: a. Judge right or wrong irrespective of the actions. 3) Contractualism: a. 4) Virtual ethics: 09/21/2016 Utilitarianism: the view that actions are right in proportion as they tend to produce happiness, wrong as they tend to produce unhappiness. John Stuart Mill: KNOW THIS quotation: It is better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be a Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.  Happiness: pleasure, and the absence of pain. o Lower “brute” pleasures  Ex. Food, time in the beach, sitting in the pool etc. o Higher “intellectual” pleasures  Are superior to lower pleasures.  Ex. Go to class to have higher career in mind. 3 arguments in favor of utilitarianism: 1. There is an element of common sense. After all, actions are wrong in they produce overall unhappiness. 2. Flexible; there is no abstract “lying is always wrong” principle. 3. Clear cut: there are no vague principles. The main reason that utilitarianism is rejected is that there are severe counter examples.  Organ harvesting example  Torturing a child to save thousand lives.  Utility rape monsters. o Raping one person and people that rape get more pleasure. More monsters got a pleasure compare to one person who was raped and whose pleasure decreased. 09/23/2016 Remember the names associated with theories.  Utilitarianism: view actions are right/wrong in proportion to how much happiness they produce. o John Stuart Mill (child genius)  There are different types of pleasures: better to be human dissatisfied than pig satisfied. o Look at the consequences.  Deontology: actions are right or wrong based on the action’s adherence to a rule or set of rules. That is, they right or wrong independently of the action’s consequences. o Deon – binding duty Deontology- duty- based ethics. o Not look at the consequences, but look at the rules. o Limits what ought and ought not to do. o Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)  Puts the focus on the good will of a person. .  Good will is the only unqualifiedly good aspect about a person.  The good will is good based on the following duties or rules set by reason.  Morality is based solely on a reason. Reason delivers moral rules to us in the form of “Categorical Imperatives”(требование, приказ,  закон).  Two different formulations of the categorical imperatives: 1. “Act only on that maxim (Ex. My maxim is to help other people) whereby thou canst at the same time will that it should become a universal law (whereby everyone should do it at the same time)”. a. Do not do anything such as if everyone did it, it would undermine our own action. b. You have to do action and imagine that everyone did it, if everyone did it could you possible to continue do it. Should I murder someone else? Think about everyone murdering; then I will be murdered too murder is immoral. i. Suppose I was going to lie, then imagine everyone is lying, no one trust each other. 2. “So act as to treat humanity, whether in thine own person or in that of any other, in every case as an end withal, never as means only” a. treat other human beings as ends and never as means to an end. b. Money is good for purchasing something else. Money is means to something else. i. Should never treat people as means to an end. Ex. Make friend just to play game on friend’s new computer than I do not have. c. Slavery is wrong because you use human beings, but use them as means or tools. 3. *Virtues (достоинство) such as courage, respect, patience, intelligence, moderation. Ex Hitler has all of these virtues but does not have a good will. 


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