The 20th Century (9.26.16 lecture)
The 20th Century (9.26.16 lecture) MCOM 1300
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Olges on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCOM 1300 at Texas Tech University taught by Dean in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Media and Communication in Media and Communications at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
The 20th Century Monday, September 26, 2016 10:00 AM • Further development of press associations ○ Associated press birthed ○ United Press - 1903 ○ Internal News Service - 1909 • Muckraking ○ Unchecked growth Monopolies developed after Democraticparty was disenfranchised ○ Early 1900's - magazines probe into this (newspapers join in later, but primarily magazines) Birth of muckraking - revealing the "filth" □ Ida Tarbell started this movement w/ a piece on Rockefeller's oil monopoly Rockefeller became a personification of greed and corruption ○ Lincoln Steffens reported on living conditions of poor immigrants Terrible working conditions How all this was manipulated by corrupt political machines ○ David Graham Phillips wrote about bribes going on in Senate Also wrote about Adacall (water w/ alcohol) an apparent cure-all □ Didn't cure anything, just killed people ○ Upton Sinclair Detailed the unsanitary conditions in the meat industry How a worker fell in a vat and was ground up w/ no one really trying to stop it Led to Anti-Trust act and Food & Drug act - big wave of reform ○ Magazine writers brought this to light, not gov't • Adolph Ochs and the New York Times ○ He insisted on comprehensive coverage Great writing, fairness, accuracy ○ Made the newspaper what it is today • 1920 - return to normalcy ○ After WWI ended in 1919, people wanted to go back to normal ○ Elected president Hardy ○ Teapot Dome Scandal ○ Prohibition Gave rise to organized crime • Jazz Journalism ○ Tabloid newspaper started to rise because easier to read than broad sheet newspapers ○ Ruth Synder sentenced to be executed by election NY Daily News □ Reporter smuggled in camera to the execution and a picture of this hits front page ○ NY Daily Mirror ○ NY Daily Graphic Gave tabloid newspapers a bad name ○ Rise of the columnist ○ Time Magazine started by Henry Luce (1923) • Stock market crash of 1929 • Roosevelt'sNew Deal ○ Creates a bunch of gov't organization to try and create new jobs to get people back to work after stock market crash • The New Deal & WWII ○ People want to know why? In publications ○ Newspapers then have to hire people who know finance, banking, etc Introduces specialization - not enough to just write well ○ WWII coverage impressive Beginning of radio coverage ○ Cronkite - Pyle - Murrow ○ Unpopular wars Korea - a police action by the US □ Dangerous to cover, many journalists died Vietnam - divisive war □ First televised war Very little censorship □ Created anti-war movement □ Journalism suffered great credibility loss because public was so divisive Changes in Grenada, the Mid-East War, Iraq □ President didn't allow coverage in Cuba □ Mid-East war: journalists not allowed to go to front lines, everything had to be pre-screened Foundations of Media and Communication Page 1 □ Mid-East war: journalists not allowed to go to front lines, everything had to be pre-screened Result of Vietnam □ Iraq did a 180 against Mid-East war - journalists covered the war first hand Reporters embedded with troops • The New Journalism (1960s and 1970s) ○ New non-fiction Writer tries to put reader in their minds Describes things with great detail to give reader impression they were there This spills over to journalism ○ The advocate style of reporting Reporter says he's against war □ So everything written is slanted against trying to get people against the war also Even if scummy behavior is necessary Very controversial (obviously) ○ Investigative reporting emerges ○ The Underground Press Said traditional newspaper didn't deal w/ issues that affected the country Rejected traditional standards and expose things that might make people mad Often libelous Intentionally crude Couldn't be sued because you couldn't track the publication down Had huge impact □ started hiring and covering minorities • Characteristics of great newspapers ○ Comprehensive coverage ○ Great writing ○ Progressive leadership Need to stand up for what they think is right and oppose what they think is wrong • Recent History ○ See a shake out - lots of mergers and consolidations of newspapers ○ Afternoon newspapers gave way to TV news Morning newspapers become dominant ○ The coming of chains - a golden age ○ The Sullivan ruling in 1964 ○ The Watergate story of the 70s Resulted in the only resignation of a US president Brought about by two rookie reporters ○ Circulation, revenue, and profits go well into 90s ○ Digital networks and the internet undermine business models of newspapers Newspapers cut costs, diversify, and embrace the tech Cutbacks on foreign and investigate reporting All newspapers go online Concern about the future as the stocks fall ○ 2010 - 2013 NP revenue continued to decline 1k to 1.5k jobs lost Newspapers are 30% smaller today than in 2009 Many newspapers have closed Foundations of Media and Communication Page 2
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