HORT 102 Week 12 Notes
HORT 102 Week 12 Notes 4616 - HORT 102
Popular in Intro to Cultivated Plants
Popular in Agricultural & Resource Econ
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Irene A. on Monday March 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 4616 - HORT 102 at Washington State University taught by Michael Pumphrey in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultivated Plants in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/30/15
HORT 102 WEEK 12 NOTES Lecture 21 Insects Impact on Crop Growth I Crop losses 40 due to weeds 30 due to diseases 30 due to insects amp mites 0 Beneficial Effects of Insects 0 many insects act as for both crops amp weeds I ex alfalfa clover tree fruits vegetable crops 0 breaking down amp recycling animalplant tissues which releases nutrients for other organisms to use 0 some insects feed on weeds others feed on crop pests I preying mantis amp ladybugs feed on aphids I klamath beetle feeds on klamath weed O food source for fish birds etc vital part of food chain 0 Detrimental Effects of Insects 0 reduce harvest yield amp quality I loss of leaf tissue reduces ability to photosynthesize I stem damage decreases translocation ability in phloem and xylem I seed damage lowers viability reduces quality of seed products I fruit foliage ower damage reduces product quality amp value I root damage reduces ability to intake nutrients amp water I premature plant death reduces yield amp quality I insect excrement amp body parts contaminate grain lots 0 Transmit diseases to plants I disease spread insects act as vectors from plant to plant I aphids mites leafhoppers can transmit viruses I disease entry insect wounds on tissue allow disease to enter plants 0 indirect damage fields produce less dry matter reduces erosion protection I ex grasshoppers can leave a field bare 0 Classification of Insects amp Mites Based on Feeding Habit O chewing insects biteteareat parts of plant I corn rootworm european corn borer corn earworm hessian y 0 piercingsucking insects or mites pierce plant phloem amp suck out sap I aphids spider mites leafhoppers Lecture 22 Insect Management 0 Pest Control principles involved in establishing an effective program 0 accurately identifying pest O accurately estimate population size to determine potential crop damage 0 use economicallyenvironmentally effective method 0 Integrated Pest Management IPM uses complete system of pest control to address problems 0 population dynamics biology amp life cycle effects of cultural practices amp weather on preproduction amp growth 0 use control methods that control pest or reduce population below economic damage levels minimize environmental damage 0 pest level at which control measures are needed economic damage gt control cost use of control method is justified threshold limits depend on crop in question 0 Pest Control Methods 0 plant breeders develop varieties resistanttolerant of pest feeding advantages no chemicals genetic resistances tend to last longer host plant does not suffer economic damage if infected O changing cropping sequence tillage cultivation weed control etc to reduce infestation levels crop rotations reduce pest population levels changing seed date plant earlier or later plowing disking or burning controlling weeds 0 using other living organisms to reduce pests parasitic insects ladybugs feed on aphids pestspecific diseases hormones or pheromones pheromones attract males to traps to prevent breeding using pesticides insecticides miticides amp nematicides most expensive type of control greatest environmental effect classified by mode of action contact poisons kill by direct body penetration or through inhalation controls piercing insects amp mites stomach poisons kill when ingested in stomach controls chewing insects systematic poisons absorbed by plant then ingested by insect control any time of pest 0 chemical may accumulate in plant parts harvested for food
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