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FW 104 wildlife ecology week 5 class notes

by: Devrrae Russell

FW 104 wildlife ecology week 5 class notes FW 104

Marketplace > Colorado State University > FW 104 > FW 104 wildlife ecology week 5 class notes
Devrrae Russell

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About this Document

These notes cover grizzly bears in Yellowstone and the history of wildlife managment
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
Ann Randall
Class Notes
grizzley, yellostone, humans, wildlife, wildlife management, wildlife issues
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devrrae Russell on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Ann Randall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
September 20, 2016 i clicker Q’s Have you ever seen a bear in the wild? A. Yes - 75% B. No - 25% Have you ever visited yellowstone national park? A. Yes - 36% B. No - 64% Video questions: ● What are some of the life history components of the grizzly discussed during the video, such as seasonal habitat, or food source throughout the year? ○ By the 1900’s grizzlies were limited to yellowstone and glacier national park ○ 1960’s bears were use as entertainment ■ Bears dependent on garbage ○ Garbage dumps in yellowstone were closed to try and bring the wild back to yellowstone ■ Became endangered ○ Turned yellowstone into a refuge ■ They had to relearn how to hunt fish and forage ○ Slowly grizzlies began to recover ○ Food sources ■ In the spring they eat dead animals killed by the winter ■ Bears go after elk calves once the winter kills are gone ■ In june they go after trout that are heading up stream ■ In july bears disappear to the peaks to hunt cutworm moths ■ In the fall they harvest white pine seeds ■ Eat hunting remains ● What were some of the management decisions made throughout the course of the video? ○ Relocation ○ Rangers post close watch on times when the bears are near people instead of relocating ○ Educating the public ○ Preventing bears from getting into trash and food shortages by replacing the containers ○ Create refuges ○ Maintain white pine populations in high countries ○ Keeping them on the endangered list ● What are the major causes for decline and or concern for the yellowstone grizzly population? ○ people are seeing them as nuisances ○ Not much space to relocate bears to ○ Elk try to trample grizzly youngs ○ Ranchers fighting against bears in terms of policies ○ Bears typically only gets 2 chances :’( ○ Wolves are their biggest competitor for food ○ Many food sources are threatened ○ developers ● What are the potential or realized human wildlife conflicts discussed during the video? ○ Humans getting too close to the bears ○ Humans being too close to our homes ○ Bears threatening livestock ○ Bears getting into trash ○ Bears getting into fruit crops ○ Bears coming too close to the schools ○ Bears messing with hunting camps ■ Hunters leave carcass ■ Hunters confuse bears and don't really follow bear country rules ○ Developing communities, oil, natural gas, and ranchlands ○ Bears cause traffic jams ○ Bears are being hit by motorized vehicles September 22, 2016 History of wildlife management Prehistoric people and wildlife ● Early human and wildlife interactions ○ Food collected by hunting and gathering ● Iclicker Q ○ Do you think that prehistoric people contributed significantly to the pleistocene extinctions? ■ Yes - 62% ■ No - 38 % ■ How? ● Pleistocene overkill Hypothesis ○ Lots of debate ■ Climate change - dryer ? ■ Reduced suitable habitat ? ■ Disease? ■ Humans more efficient hunters? ■ Mammoths, mastodons, giant ground sloths all disappeared during this time Historic people and wildlife ● Major trends ○ Hunter-gatherers >>> agrarians ■ What does this mean for wildlife? ○ Question ■ As we moved to an agrarian lifestyle, what factor likely impacted wildlife the most ● Hunting -22% ● Land - 70% ● Domestic -21% ○ Animal domestication ■ Wild stock undesired why ● Gene pool disease ■ Over grazing ■ ○ By 1500 AD, humans occupied all major ecosystems in north america ○ Medicine ○ Industrial revolution ○ Protected from natural selection ○ No limiting factors? History of the people and wildlife in the u.s. ● Fish and wildlife were the basis of wildlife for many native american tribes ● Respected nature; spirituality and human ● ● Europeans ○ Spanish french english ■ 400 -650 fishing vessels ○ Dominion, fear use/ exploitation ○ Wildlife initially were incredibly abundant ○ Tragedy of the commons ● Market hunting ○ 1850 -1899 ○ New americans ■ Right and duty to tame the land ■ Manifest destiny ■ Myth of superabundance ● 30 million bison ● Billions of passenger pigeons ● Salmon covered the bottom of the rivers ● Consequent of the myth ○ Robins and shore birds ○ Waterfowl ■ punt guns ■ Trumpeter swan ○ Most plumes were used for hats ○ Bison ■ 30 mill in 1860 to 150 in 1889 ■ Industrial revolution ● Machine belts ■ Military control ● Contributing factors ○ Repeating rifles ○ Railroads ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Passenger pigeon ■ Life history - gregarious, large flocks, one egg per clutch, Mast dependence ■ Extinction ● demand ● Myth of abundance ● Life history ● Railroads ● telegraph ● Forest habitat ○ Carolina parakeet ■ habitat , hunting/ capture, mounts ■ Extinct by 1870 Preservation era ● 1900 - 1929 ● Legal protections ● National parks service john muir ○ The mountains are calling and i must go ● First national wildlife refuge ● Theodore roosevelt ○ “The conservation president” ○ Established the first forest reserves ○ Gifford pinchot ■ 1st chief of us first in 1905 ■ Proposed sustainable use of forests Era of game management ● 1930 - 1965 ● C​onservation era ● Game management by aldo leopold in 1933 ○ Forester ○ Writer ○ Management ○ Ecologist ● Great deprssion ○ Drought years and dust bowl in the 1930’s ○ Civilian conservation corps ■ Planted 3 billion trees ■ Improved parks ■ Soil conservation ■ Wildlife habitat ● Ding darling ○ Appointed by F D roosevelt ○ Reporter ○ Cartoonist ○ Duck stamp ○ Biological survey ○ National wildlife federation ● Soil conservation service (NRCS) ● Bureau of land management (BLM) ● The wildlife society ● Rachel Carson ○ Marine biologist ■ Pesticides ● Critical communication ○ Silent spring - 1959 ■ Bioaccumulation and biomagnification Environmental era ● 1966 -1984 ● Silent spring by rachel carson ○ Devastating effects of ddt ● Environmentalist ● Endangered species act of 1973 ● National environmental policy act ● Environmental protection agency (epa) Present era ● 1990’s to present ● Conservation biology ● Biodiversity ● Animal rights ● Ecosystem management ● Human dimensions ● Ecosystem services ● Environmental justice


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