SYG2000 Chapter 5 Notes
SYG2000 Chapter 5 Notes syg2000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Copeland on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to syg2000 at University of Florida taught by Mary K. Fitzgerald in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Sociology in Sociology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 5 Monday, September 26, 2016 11:10 AM SEPARATE AND TOGETHER: LIFE IN GROUPS -What is A GROUP? a Group- collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other b Crowd- temporary gathering of people in a public place; members might interact but do not identify with one another and will not remain in contact i Collections of people such as crowds, audiences, and queues are known as AGGREGATES- ppl who find themselves together in a particular physical location ii Category- people who share one or more attributes but who lack a sense of common identity or belonging 1 Primary and Secondary Groups- a Primary Groups-ppl who are most important to our sense of self; members; relationships are typically characterized by face-to-face interaction, high levels of cooperation, and intense feelings of belonging b Secondary Groups- larger and less intimate than Primary; members' relationships are usually organized around a specific goal and are often temporary 2 Social Networks- a Social network- web of direct and indirect ties connecting an indiv. To other ppl who may also affect the indiv. b Social ties- connections between individuals c Winners, losers, and influence- America's centrality, a network analysis term that means an actor with the most ties in a given network, is what gives it powerful influence and not the actual outcomes of the disputes. d Jobs, gender, and networks- our networks work for us, but may also work against us e Sexual health and networks- It's not WHAT you know, it's WHO you know -Separate From Groups: Anomie or Virtual Membership? a Anomie- "normalness"- term used to describe alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change b Membership not only anchors us to the social world- it's what keeps us alive. c Virtual Communities- social groups whose interactions are mediated through info. Technologies, particularly the internet. -Group Dynamics- a Group dynamics- the patterns of interactions between groups and individuals 1 Dyads, Triads, and More- a Dyads- two-person social group b Triad- three-person social group c Smaller groups=personal ties/ larger groups= based on rules and regulations 2 In-Groups and Out-Groups- a In-group- group that one identifies with and feels loyal to b Out-group- group an indiv. Feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward 2 Reference Groups- group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves 3 Group Cohesion- sense of solidarity or loyalty that indivs. Feel toward a group to which they belong a Groupthink- in very cohesive groups, tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement -Social Influence (PEER PRESSURE) a Social influence- exerting group control over others' decisions 1 Experiments in Conformity- a Asch Experiment- study on compliance- line test b Milgram Experiment- further work on conformity- voltage tests c Stanford Prison Experiment -how situational dynamics determine behaviors 2 GROUP vs. INDIVIDUAL NORMS- HONOR KILLING- a Honor Killing- murder of a family member- usually female- who is believed to have brought dishonor to her family -Teamwork- a Social loafing- phenomenon in which as more indivs. Are added to a task, each indiv contributes a little less; a source of inefficiency when working in teams b Social identity Theory- theory of group formation and maintenance that stresses the need of indiv members to feel a sense of belonging -Qualities of Leadership: Power, Authority, and Style- a Power- the ability to control the actions of others b Coercive power- power backed by threat of force c Influential power- power supported by persuasion d Authority- legitimate right to wield power e Traditional authority- authority based in custom, birthright, or divine right f Legal-rational Authority- authority based in laws and rules and procedures, not in the heredity or personality of any individual leader g Charismatic Authority- authority based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader h Instrumental leadership- task or goal oriented leadership i Expressive leadership- maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group -Bureaucracy- a Bureaucracy- type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, rules and regulations, impersonality, and formal written communication 1 Mcdonaldization of Society- a Rationalization- application of economic logic to human activity; use of formal rules and regulations in order to maximize efficiency without consideration of subjective or individual concerns b Mcdonaldization - George Ritzer's term describing the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the accompanying increases in efficiency and dehumanization. 2 Responding to Bureaucratic Restraints- a Burning Man- seeking out an escape from bureaucratically regimented life -CLOSING COMMENTS "A group is a collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other."
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