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PoliSci 101: Lecture 3 Notes

by: Cayla Haupt

PoliSci 101: Lecture 3 Notes POL 10100-002

Marketplace > Purdue University > POL 10100-002 > PoliSci 101 Lecture 3 Notes
Cayla Haupt
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About this Document

These two-week long lecture notes cover the Constitution and the bodies of government in the United States of America.
Into to American Government and Politics
Valeria S. Chapman
Class Notes
political science, PoliSci, political, Science, 101, constitution, alexanderhamilton, federalism, citizenship, state, nation, polotics, USA, UnitedStates, unitedstatesofamerica, The Constitution, amendment, The, american, system
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cayla Haupt on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL 10100-002 at Purdue University taught by Valeria S. Chapman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Cayla Haupt Prof. Sinclair­Chapman Poli Sci Constitution notes I. The Constitution: Making the Rules A. Articles of Confederation B. Constitutional Convention C. Ratification: Federalist vs. Anti­Federalist II. Confederation  A. Decentralized system B. National gov’t with limited powers C. Authority granted by states, not directly by citizens. 1. E.g., states select national officers; states can  override national decisions. III. Articles of Confederation A. National Gov’t 1. Limited power to: a) Make peace; negotiate treaties b) Coin money c) Appoint officers for Army d) Post Office B. Congress was the national decision­making body C. Each state received one vote regardless of population. D. Super­majority (⅔ votes) required for most action; unanimous  consent to tax citizens. E. Problems  1. No real power to tax 2. No authority to regulate commerce. (the activity of  buying/selling)  3. No president. 4. No national judicial system.  5. No real power for National Gov’t. F. Downfall 1. Bad economy 2. Shay’s Rebellion (1786­1787) IV. Constitutional Convention  A. Philadelphia, Summer of 1787 B. Who attended? 1. 55 delegates a) All were white, male landowners. b) Business and political elite. c) Most had political experience. d) Well educated in political  philosophy. (1) Locke (2) Hobbes (3) Aristotle e) 25 owned slaves. f) Continental ideology. ­ON EXAM­ (1) Interest of the nation. (2) Most saw themselves  as “Virginians”, “New Yorkers”, etc. Not as Americans. (3) Balancing act. 2. George Washington a) Tricked. b) Everyone talking about how he was  going to be there and if he wasn’t. It would all fall apart. c) Didn’t participate much. 3. Alexander Hamilton 4. James Madison­ an agenda setter a) Written a completely different  article. b) Disregarded Articles of  Confederation. c) Shifted entire discussion. d) From Virginia. e) ⅔ vote only. RI didn’t anticipate this rule change. f) Balancing act. C. Missing? 1. Rhode Island a) Protesting. Didn’t want it to happen. b) Too small. All equal­ didn’t want  bigger state to have more powers. c) Unanimous vote­ Can’t play if their  not there. 2. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams (abroad) V. The Founder’s Dilemma A. Wanted a stronger central gov’t because of weakness of the  Articles of Confederation; yet, feared a gov’t that was too strong B. Feared both anarchy and tyranny. 1. Stop states from going off on their own. 2. Wanted to address national currency, one power to  determine foreign affairs, etc.  C. Objectives 1. Improve nat’l delivery of public goods a) E.x. defence, commerce 2. Protect parochial (local) interests. 3. Win public support. a) Little R 4. Maintain a political future. D. Strategies 1. “Continental ideology” a) Wanted to represent states b) Battled hard on those ideologies. 2. Problem definition a) What we have doesn’t work­ We  need something else. b) Versus status quo; ambiguity E. Agenda setting 1. In James Madison a) Starts discussion with 2. Reform Articles or something else? 3. VA Plan (no debate over what to debate) a) Introduced by James Maddison. F. Secrecy 1. Part of the strategy. 2. Allows for honest negotiation. a) Bad ideas on table and work them  out b) No public proclamations.  c) No candid photos of drunk men at  2am 3. Helped create unified document. 4. Trans Pacific Partnership­ Obama a) Issue of transparency b) Need some secrets and privacy to get to what’s important. VI. Two Major Plans A. Virgina Plan 1. Madison 2. Abandoned Articles of Confederation all together 3. Ratification by 9 of states a) Important strategic plan B. New Jersey Plan 1. Small states strike back 2. Benefit of supermajority 3. Political realities. 4. Needed to interest small states. VII. Virginia Plan ­p.g. 41 A. 3 Separate branches  1. Legislative, Executive, Judicial B. Bicameral legislature 1. Proportionate to state population C. Single executive 1. Precursor to the president that we have today D. “Council of Revision” 1. Executive and federal judges E. Supreme Court appointed by legislature for life. F. Power to override state laws. VIII. New Jersey Plan­ Small states A. Unicameral (of a legislative body; having a single legislative  chamber.) legislature with one vote for each state. B. Group executive. C. Acts of Congress “Supreme law” of the land. D. Supreme judiciary with very limited authority. E. Plan did not win, but meant that small states would be on the map. IX. Three Big Issues A. Representation 1. The Great Compromise a) Took articles from each plan to  please all. 2. Bicameral legislature. a) House of Representatives­ based on  state population (Virginia Plan) b) Senate­ two representatives from  each state (New Jersey Plan) B. Executive Branch 1. Strong, independent executive. a) Quick decisive decision making. b) Accountability. 2. Cution based on colonial experience 3. Selection a) Electoral College (compromise)  (1) States, congress,  citizenry have role in election (2) Number of electors  equals number of members in House of Senate (3) House decides (state  delegations) if no candidate receives absolute majority (270 of 538) electoral votes.­closest to people­based on  population, 4. Independent  a) Authority to check ambitious  legislature (1) Veto­Checks and  balances (2) Requires ⅔ vote in  each chamber to override. 5. Congressional Checks a) Enumerated powers (Article II, Sec.  2 & 3) (1) Commander­in­Chief, Congress declares war. (2) Conduct foreign  policy, Senate approves ambassadors/treaties. C. Slavery 1. Morality not an issue­ Bye bye Southern states 2. How to count ⅙ of Americans who were enslaved?  a) Southern states wanted Slaves to  count so that they get more representation. ­They needed the free  labor. b) Representation, taxation, commerce 3. Three­Fifths Compromise: enslaved blacks counted  as ⅗ of a person for apportionment of legislative seats and taxation.  D. Three­fifths compromise 1. Representatives and direct taxes shall be  apportioned among the several states which may be included within this  Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined  by adding the whole number of free persons, including those bound to  service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three­fifths of all other persons. 2. Congress cannot forbid the importation of slaves for 20 years X. Compromise on Trade and Taxation A. Congress could tax imported goods (tariffs but could not tax  exported goods/ B. Congress was forbidden to pass laws restricting the slave trade for  at least twenty years. XI. Constitutional framework A. Republican form of gov’t 1. Afraid of direct democracy B. Limited gov’t 1. Protect individuals’ rights and liberties from gov’t C. Power of national gov’t 1. Express: Listed in the constitution 2. Implied: “necessary and proper”to perform express  powers. Also known as “Elastic Clause”. 3. Inherent: Power to conduct foreign affairs. 4. Supremacy Clause: Federal law prevails over state  laws and constitutions. XII. Federalism A. Division of power between national gov’t and the state gov’t. B. Each state retains its own legislative, executive, and judicial  branches. C. Powers: 1. Delegated: Only to national (Article I, Section 8) 2. Reserved: Only to states (10th Amendment) 3. Concurrent: Shared by national and state 4. Denied: Neither national nor state XIII. Ratification of the Constitution A. Federalist vs. Anti­federalist B. Federalist 10 1. Attributed to Madison  2. People didn’t use their real names 3. One of the lasting debates of what into the  constitution. 4. Argues how to solve a problem between factions  and representation. a) How to deal with Tyranny of the  Minority b) House­ Need 218 votes for majority c) How to deal with Tyranny of the  Majority C. Federalist 51 1. Madison 2. Ambition must be made to counteract ambition 3. Checks and Balances


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