Week 5, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development
Week 5, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development EDPS 251
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marshall DeFor on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDPS 251 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jarrett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education in Educational Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 5 Week 5 Recap Hello, fellow students! Once again, it’s me, Marshall DeFor. This week, we talked about theories of intelligence, including information processing and the theories of multiple intelligences. I wrote all of the following material, unless it is otherwise cited. Life gets crazy, so hopefully, this takes some of the pressure off of missing a day or missing a section of notes or reading! Table of Contents: Lectures Notes Monday Wednesday Friday Study Guide: Readings for the Week Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 3 pages 115-121 Lectures Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only. I am a human, and I make mistakes. I cannot write down everything that is said or presented. These notes should provide you with a large amount of what was discussed in class, but may not include all of the material that you need to know. The main goal of these lecture notes are to help you remember points of each lecture that are not included in the slides provided by the instructor. Monday Information Processing and Intelligence: I. The information-processing model differs from Piaget and Vygotsky because it is a lot more internally-based. It often uses the analogy of how computers function. II. Changes in Adolescence A. During adolescence, processing speed increases about 133% from 12-15, reaching almost adult capacity. B. There are developmental changes in attention, memory, and higher-order cognitive processes. These are influenced by speed and capacity of processing. III. Attention: concentration and focusing of mental effort A. Attention is sometimes selective: channeling attention at one source B. Lack of attention can be caused by: 1. resource limitation: cannot divide attention between multiple sources - this situation has to be fixed by the individual more accurately focusing their attention 2. data limitation: the source has poor-quality or non-completed information - this situation has to be fixed by modifying the data C. Types of attention: selective, divided (examples: taking notes + listening to speaker, texting + driving), sustained, executive D. What are some examples of how multitasking can benefit or distract adolescents? 1. Benefits: a) Complete multiple tasks well at one time in a job setting EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 5 b) Skills for future parenting 2. Distract: Homework and TV/home environment often prolongs homework experience and can lower homework quality E. Many adults do not get good at multi-tasking IV. Memory A. Stages of memory 1. Encoding: converting information to a form that usable and storable in memory 2. Storage: retaining information, not all infor and quality varies 3. Retrieval: accessing stored info and making it available to the consciousness, easier to retrieve some things than others. Cues can help B. The modal model 1. Sensory input goes to sensory memory. It is there for a very short time (3-4 seconds). The first impressions of sensory information is held here. 2. Unattended information is lost. Attended information goes to short-term memory, or working memory. It is often called working memory because you can work with and manipulate the information. You can solve problems and comprehend written and spoken language in this part of your memory. Here, there is maintenance rehearsal. (“Dial this phone number.” You repeat the phone number in order to remember it.) 3. Unrehearsed information is lost. Information that is rehearsed and held long enough can go to long-term memory. There is not a rule on how long it stays here, but it is definitely more permanent than other types of memory. Some information can be lost in long-term memory, but neuropsychologists and neurobiologists have not found a limit to what can be stored. C. Atkinson and Shiffrin: Stores Model 1. General Concept: a) Mind has hardware (memory is like a connected set of containers) b) Mind has software (strategies) that become more complicated and integrated with age c) Limits on hardware increase with age or experience. 2. Attention dictates what makes it from the register into short-term memory. Children get much better at identifying relevant information and ignoring irrelevant information as they age. We use more efficient strategies as we get older. 3. Strategies may affect or manipulate the information in any system. 4. Memory Strategies: Encoding and Storage a) Some strategies for long-term memory from the class: (1) Mnemonics (2) Multiple sensory information (3) Repetition or rote memorization (4) Practicing recall (5) Visual association (6) Teaching information (7) Chunking or chaining information (8) Connecting to something meaningful b) Some strategies for long-term memory from the instructor: (1) Rehearsal: repetition of the stimulus (a) low level of processing (b) not usually as efficient as other methods EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 5 (2) Organization: chunking and ordering stimuli (3) Elaboration: creating a relationship among stimuli (a) late-developed skill; rarely appears before age 11 (b) very effective; usually replaces other strategies 5. Memory Strategies: Retrieval a) Retrieval Cues: (1) Recall: fill-in-the-blank (2) Recollection: essay question about full memory (what relevance this has with a situation, how it plays into a narrative) (3) Recognition: multiple choice (4) Relearning: b) Retrieval failure: “Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon” Wednesday I. Class presentation A. Gardner: professor at Harvard 1. These frames of mind affect how we view the world 2. Everyone has all of the frames of mind, but at varying degrees 3. Everyone processes information differently because of these varying degrees B. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences: 1. Verbal: Sensitivity to sound, meaning of words, different functions of language (journalists, speakers, poets) 2. Mathematical: Sensitivity to logical and numerical patterns (mathematician, accountants, engineers) 3. Spatial: Capacity to perceive visual-spatial world. (architect, artist, sailor) 4. Bodily-Kinesthetic: Ability to control body movements, handle objects skillfully (surgeons, dancer, athlete) 5. Musical: Ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, timbre (musician, composer) 6. Interpersonal: Ability to discern/respond appropriately to moods, motivations of others (salesperson, teacher) 7. Intrapersonal: Ability to access one’s own feelings, knowledge of one’s own strengths, desires, and intelligences (theologian, psychologist, philosopher) 8. Naturalist: Ability to discriminate among living things and sensitivity to nature (zoologists, veterinarians) II. Executive Functioning: higher-order, complex cognitive processes A. This happens in the prefrontal cortex of the brain. B. There are six main domains: 1. Activation: organizing data and information, prioritizing, initiating a process 2. Focus: applying attention, choosing where and for how long attention is directed 3. Effort: regulating alertness, sustaining effort, and regulating processing speed 4. Emotions: managing frustration, balancing emotions EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 5 5. Memory: making deliberate decisions to pull things out of memory, manipulation of memory 6. Action: taking steps towards goals, monitoring and regulating actions C. Cognitive Control (inhibitory or effortful) 1. Ability to resist a strong desire to do something less effective and instead do something more effective 2. Includes attention 3. Includes cognitive flexibility, which is allowing adaptation, looking at things from other points of view 4. Decision-making: there is an increase in risk-taking behavior in adolescents due to prefrontal cortex still developing, and also due to needing negative experiences to lead to better decisions 5. Critical thinking: looking at evidence and facts and bring reflective and analytical when trying to come to a conclusion about something 6. Creative thinking: the ability to think in novel ways and discover unique solutions for the problems 7. Metacognition a) Awareness of own thought processes b) “Thinking about thinking” or “knowing about knowing” c) Includes planning, evaluation, and self-regulation, such as “did i understand what I just read?” d) Redirecting effort if unsuccessful e) Setting goals f) Meta-cognition skills can be taught. Ways to teach metacognition: (1) Asking them to ask themselves questions (2) Teach them to self-monitor learning (3) Provide enough external feedback as an example D. Social Information Processing 1. Steps used to process and respond to social events: a) Encode social cues (What is going on around me?) b) Interpret social cues (What does this all mean?) c) Formulate social goals (What do I want to get out of this situation?) d) Generate possible problem-solving strategies (What are some possible ways that I could respond?) e) Evaluate probable effectiveness of strategies (Which response should I choose?) f) Response enactment 2. These steps can be deliberate, but they often happen involuntarily and rapidly in the brain 3. Impact of Mental State on Social Information Processing a) Memory of past social experiences (schema) b) Understanding of social rules (social schemas) c) Social expectations (How will others react?) d) Emotional and physical state 4. Social Cognitive Bias: predispositions to interpret and/or respond to social situations in particular ways a) Stereotype: overly simplistic characterization of a particular group b) Prejudice: exhibiting these negative feelings toward the particular group EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 5 c) Hostile Attribution Bias: tend to interpret other people as having hostile motives; usually from hostile people or people from hostile backgrounds Friday ● Intelligence ○ One common definition of intelligence is “the ability to solve problems, adapt, and learn from everyday experiences.” ○ How can we tell if someone is intelligent or not? ■ Different types of intelligence ■ Comparison of peers ■ There are measures for IQ or other types of intelligence ○ How do we measure intelligence, and what do we use intelligence test scores for? ■ IQ Tests ■ Assisted learning programs ■ Colleges/scholarships ■ To tailor educational experience ■ Labels, MENSA, bragging rights ● History of Intelligence Tests ○ Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed the first intelligence test, which was used to identify children for special education in France in 1905 ○ Lewis Terman developed the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale in 1916. ○ In WWI, intelligence testing (Alpha and Beta) was used in recruitment and assignment placement. This popularized intelligence testing in the US. ○ Intelligence tests are still used by psychologists, the military, and schools today. ● Measuring Intelligence ○ IQ stands for Intelligence Quotient ○ Formula originally used by Stanford-Binet: IQ = (mental age, which is the way you act) / (chronological age, years of life) * 100 ○ Wechsler Intelligence Scale: ■ average score is 100 ■ 68% of people fall within 15 points of 100 ■ 95% fall within 30 points of 100 ● Using Intelligence Tests ○ One tool in a toolbox to try and diagnose/educate a person ○ Avoid stereotypes and education based on IQ scores ○ Measure of current performance ○ Intelligence is not the only indicator of competence. Some things are left out: ■ Street smarts ■ Work ethic ■ Creativity ■ Emotional stability ● Types of Tests ○ Intelligence Tests: target underlying intellectual ability and measure current performance of general thinking, reasoning, and learning skills (Wechsler scales, Stanford-Binet) ○ Achievement tests: measure skills and knowledge that are acquired (standardized tests) ○ Aptitude tests: measure potential ability; more for specific domains of talents, like music or computer programming ● What IQ can do ○ IQ scores predict school performance fairly well ○ Childhood IQ scores predict occupational attainment as an adult (SES, job advancement) EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 5 c. Do People Have One or Many Intelligences? Well, many psychologists agree that there are many different aspects that make up intelligence, but critics say that there is not a large enough research base to support these claims. Some compromise and say that while there is a general intelligence, people also have specific intellectual abilities. D. The Neuroscience of Intelligence: a. Does having a bigger brain make you smarter? Studies show that there is a 1.3-to-1.4 correlation between brain size and intelligence; although this correlation is moderate, it does not show a direct correlation. b. Is intelligence region-specific in the brain? Some research shows that the prefrontal cortex handles cognitive thinking; other research shows that intelligence is more distributed across the brain. Einstein’s total brain size was average, but parts of his brain that were designated as mathematically and spatially cognisant were 15% larger than average. E. Heredity and Environment: the nature-versus-nurture of intelligence a. Heredity: there is a stronger correlation of IQ between identical twins than fraternal twins. b. Environment: i. children adopted from low-income families into middle- and upper- income families jumped from 12-18 points 1. More stimulating environments 2. More opportunities for better schooling ii. Amount and quality of schooling impact intellectual outcomes c. Heredity and Environment Interaction i. Adoption studies indicate that more beneficial or supportive environments can substantially affect IQ, possibly due to different attitudes, strategies, motivation, and/or support ii. Flynn Effect: the average of society’s IQ scores tend to get higher over time