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BLAW Week 4, end of Chapter 3

by: Christine Gilbert

BLAW Week 4, end of Chapter 3 316

Marketplace > New Mexico State University > BLAW > 316 > BLAW Week 4 end of Chapter 3
Christine Gilbert

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This week continues and concludes our study of Chapter 3, covering the topics of Case citations, an in-depth look at the roles of the courts within the overarching judicial system, the Federal Supr...
Legal Environment of Business
Professor Nancy Oretskin
Class Notes
business, business consulting, Law, american constituiton, Constitutional, civil, Civilprocedure
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christine Gilbert on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 316 at New Mexico State University taught by Professor Nancy Oretskin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Legal Environment of Business in BLAW at New Mexico State University.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 3 (cont.) 8/30/16 (***** = one of the top 5 things to take away from this class!)  How to read Case Citations:            Caldwell vs Bechtel [Parties involved] [Generally shows in which court the case took place, i.e. Supreme, state trial, etc.]      631             F.2d       989   1980 [Vol of book] [Book series] [page #] [Year] Procedural and Substantive: if you get into a legal issue in business, know that the legal battle is  fought on two fronts.  Review: two separate systems, State and Federal.  *If you are initiating the case, this is important for you to know! (i.e., which has jurisdiction and  which you should approach)  Know the functions/roles of each of these courts: they are the same for state and federal, but with different names.  STATE COURT FEDERAL COURT (50 STATE COURTS)  (ONE FEDERAL COURT)  *TRIAL  TRIAL – District Court (STATE GETS TO NAME IT) APPELATE/COURT OF APPEALS **Circuit Court (CAP) (1­3 JUDGES: REVIEW COURT ONLY!) (1­3 Judges: Review court only!) SUPREME SUPREME (9 JUDGES: REVIEW COURT ONLY!) (9 Judges: Review court only!) *E.g., Trial courts can have different names in each state, so it’s really important to ask what the  role of the court is, i.e. which is the Trial Court, which is the Court of Appeals, etc. NY’s Trial  court is called “Supreme,” but it’s actually Supreme Court (role) is called something else. NM  has three Trial courts: District, Municipal and Magistrate. Trial court:   The ONLY PLACE court actually takes place: juries, witnesses, etc: all of that is ONLY  in the Trial Court Proceedings. (The rest are REVIEW COURTS ONLY.)  Have the option of Prose: Latin literally meaning, “On your own.” I.e., being your own  legal representative.  Role of the Jury:  Ascertains the facts, and one those facts are established, they are established in the case  forever. (Typically, if evidence wasn’t brought to light during the trial, it’s foreclosed  forever, but if you have reason/explanations at the Appellate Court for why it  wasn’t/couldn’t be presented earlier, it might be sent back to the Trial Court for a  retrial.) [Watch the movie Hurricane as an example]  Trial  Jury  Verdict  Judgement  Appellate Courts:   Cannot initiate a case from an Appellate court: a review court ONLY.   Not able to re­evaluate the facts or add new evidence (only under cases of extreme  rareness will new evidence be admitted, and the trial will be re­opened in a trial court.)   Reviewing a given case to see if the trial court used the correct precedent and procedure.   Has 1­3 judges Supreme Court:   Also a reviewing court   If you lose at the Trial and Appellate courts, you can appeal to the (appropriate: Fed or  State) Supreme Court.   Has 9 judges The process for selecting judges (both Federal and State) comes from the Constitution. ­ Federal: Judicial Committee selects the judges (For life) ­ State: voted on by the public.   The Federal process is always the same except that the Court of Appeals for Federal Court is  always calthd the Circuit Court.  ­ 9  Circuit: Liberal  ­ 5  Circuit: Conservative  ­ 2  Circuit: Balanced business  th th th nd ** NM is in the 10  Circuit, TX in the 5 , CA in the 9 , and NY in the 2 NOTE: Jurors tend to reflect the attitude of the geography; so be wise about which Circuit you  conduct your trial! (If you can control it)      Precedents come from the Court of Appeals/Circuit Courts: they can be binding [meaning it’s  obtained from that jurisdiction/circuit], or persuasive [meaning that you can try to persuade the  court to do act like another circuit acts.]  NOTE: If you don’t like the precedent in your jurisdiction, you can argue (persuasive) that the  precedents in other states in order to try and change the law, however this is typically  exceedingly difficult.  U.S. Federal Supreme Court  Receives 8,000 cases for review; hears 100­125 cases each year. (Either coming from the  Circuit Court or State Supreme Court – submitted on “writ of centiorari,” which is the  explanation of why the Supreme Court needs to hear that particular case.) o If they don’t decide to take the case, the most last and most recent court decision  of the case stands.   Criteria to be a Federal Supreme Court case:  o Involves violation (or possible violation) of Constitutional laws/procedure (e.g.,  1  amendment Freedom of Speech rights, etc.)  o Split in the Circuit Courts (e.g., Supreme Court of TX and NM unable to agree  on water rights issues.)   Moot: means no viable issues are left: happens when a Federal Supreme court decision on one  case sets a precedent that resolves other pending Federal Supreme court cases (with no other  issues found).   NOTE: You CANNOT come to the Federal Supreme Court with the same case 2x: can come  with the same issue, but not with the same case. (i.e. facts and evidence)  How do we know if we’re going to State or Federal Court? The answer is…  *****Jurisdiction: ­ Defines the authority of the court: State or Federal, i.e. which trial court you will be seen  in.  ­ Getting into Federal Court is much harder than getting into State court Requirements for getting into Federal Court: 1. Constitutional issue 2. Federal Jurisdiction  Lawsuit: two components: the people involved and the subject at hand  Inpersonam: Jurisdiction over the people: Plaintiff, Defendant, etc.  Subject matter: substance of the case.  Avenues of entering the Federal Courts: 1) Federal Question Jurisdiction: anything that comes out of the Constitution  nd st a. E.g., violation of 2  Amendment right to bear arms, 1  Amendment Freedom of  Speech, violation of Federal Statutes/Federal Tax, etc.  2) Diversity of Citizenship: (hint: has NOTHING to do with ethnic/racial diversity): if the  Plaintiff and defendant reside in separate states and the amount of the dispute exceeds  $75,000.  a. Key Term: reside legally means where it’s incorporated, or where it’s *principle  place of business is.   *Business tactic: many large corporations have principle places of business in many states to  allow them to claim Jurisdiction in Federal court if a dispute arises due to the claim of Diversity. Subpoena: Court order Summons: Court notice Can a TX subpoena force a NM entity (or individual) to go to TX with a subpoena?  ­ Yes, if the situation fits with the Long Arm Statute Long Arm Statute: (e.g. of inpersonam): allows jurisdiction of a state to reach out of its own  jurisdiction to pull an entity/individual back into the state jurisdiction under this set of criteria:  ­ The entity/individual maintains minimum contacts with the State (transacting business) An example of minimum contacts: bank accounts and fraud found on an individual in the  state enacting the Long Arm Statute, though the resident may reside in another location.  MEMORIZE MINIMUM CONTACTS!!!  Read Caldwell vs Bechtel and other Cases from Chapter 3 in Canvas


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