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BIOL 201 Chapter 6 notes

by: Kayla Wisotzkey

BIOL 201 Chapter 6 notes BIOL 201-015

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > BIOL 201-015 > BIOL 201 Chapter 6 notes
Kayla Wisotzkey

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These notes cover everything you need to know about Chapter six; includes notes from the book and the lecture.
Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics
Cheryl D. Warren
Class Notes
Biology, Energy, Thermodynamics
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Wisotzkey on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 201-015 at Towson University taught by Cheryl D. Warren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Kayla Wisotzkey Chapter 6  Thermodynamics: the branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes ­energy: the capacity to do work ­kinetic energy: the energy of motion… moving objects perform work by causing other  matter to move ­potential energy: stored energy… the capacity to move ­the sun provides energy to all living things: a) energy absorbed from sunlight is used to combine small molecules into more  complex ones b) the sun converts carbon from an inorganic to an organic form c) energy from sunlight is stored as potential energy ­oxidation: when a molecule or atom loses an electron  ­reduction: when a molecule or atom gains an electron (higher level of energy)   The Laws of Thermodynamics ­1  Law of Thermodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change  from one form to another  ­chemical potential energy that is stored in some molecules can be shifted to other molecules and stored in different chemical bonds… some of the energy dissipates into the environment as heat ­2  Law of Thermodynamics: some energy is lost as disorder in the universe  ­entropy: all of the disorder in the universe; constantly increasing  Free energy: the energy available to do work in any system; the amount of energy  available to break and form other chemical bonds ­the change in free energy allows us to predict whether a chemical reaction is  spontaneous or not ­change in free energy=energy of products­reactants ­endergonic reaction: the products have more free energy than the reactants… the  reaction is not spontaneous because they need an input of energy ­exergonic reaction: the products have less free energy than the reactants… the reaction is spontaneous ­an exergonic reaction has an equilibrium favoring the products, and an  endergonic reaction has an equilibrium favoring the reactants ­chemical equilibrium: the forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate ­activation energy: the extra energy needed to destabilize existing chemical bonds and  start a chemical reaction ­to increase the rate of reactions: a. Increase the energy of reacting molecules b. Lower activation energy  ­catalysts: substances that influence chemical bonds to lower the activation needed to  start a reaction  ATP: the currency that cells use for energy transactions ­it powers almost every energy requiring process in cells… makes sugars, supplies  energy for chemical reactions, transports substances across membranes ­it is not suitable for long term energy storage ­structure of ATP: 1. Ribose: 5 carbon sugar that serves as the framework to which the other two  subunits are attached 2. Adenine: organic molecule composed of 2 carbon­nitrogen rings… weak base 3. Three phosphates ­How ATP stores energy: the phosphate groups are highly negative charged and repel  each other, making the covalent bonds connecting the phosphates unstable ­when a bond breaks, ATP becomes ADP and a phosphate, and 7.3 kcal/ mole of energy  is released ­cells use ATP to drive endergonic reactions (which don’t proceed spontaneously because their products possess more free energy than their reactants) ­ATP can provide most of the energy a cell needs: helps generate force in muscles,  creates concentration gradients of important ions ­ATP cycles continuously    Enzymes: mostly proteins that act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions  ­enzymes lower the activation rate of reactions ­the shape of an enzyme allows it to stabilize an association between substrates (the  molecules that will undergo a reaction) by bringing the two substrates together in the  correct orientation, which lowers the activation energy required for new bonds to form ­The enzyme is not changed or consumed in the reaction, so it can be used over and over ­metabolism: the collection of all chemical reactions ­By facilitating particular chemical reactions, the enzymes in a cell determine the course  of metabolism in that cell ­active sites: the pockets or clefts on the enzyme that the substrates bind to, forming an  enzyme­substrate complex ­The binding of a substrate makes the enzyme adjust its shape so it fits better with that  substrate… this may facilitate the binding of other substrates to the enzyme   The steps of catalysis: 1) The substrate (sucrose) consists of glucose and fructose bonded together  2) The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme, forming an enzyme­substrate  complex 3) The binding of the substrate and enzyme places stress on the glucose­fructose bond,  and the bond breaks 4) Products are released; the enzyme can bond to other substrates  Multienzyme complexes: the assemblies of several enzymes catalyzing different steps in  a sequence of reactions… speeds the overall process up ­Advantages of multienzyme complexes: 1) The product of one reaction can be delivered to the next enzyme without  releasing it to diffuse away 2) Unwanted side reactions are prevented because the reacting substrate doesn’t  leave the complex while it goes through the series of reactions  3) All of the reactions that take place within the multi­enzyme complex can be  controlled as a unit  Nonprotein enzymes: enzymes that are not proteins ­RNA catalysts: “ribosomes,” accelerate the rate of biochemical reactions but aren’t  proteins a) Intramolecular catalysis: when the ribosomes have a folded structure and catalyze  reactions on themselves b) Intermolecular catalysis: when the ribosomes act on other molecules without  being changed themselves    Temperature, pH, and the binding of regulatory molecules affect the enzymes ability to  catalyze a reaction ­Temperature: increasing the temp. of an uncatalyzed reaction increases its rate because  heat increases molecular movement ­the rate of an enzyme­catalyzed reaction increases with temperature up to the  optimum temperature… at extremely high temperatures, the enzyme denatures ­pH: ionic interactions are sensitive to the H  ion concentration of the fluid in which the  enzyme is dissolved ­some enzymes can function in very low pH’s ­Inhibitors and Activators: enzyme activity is sensitive to the presence of substances that  can bind to the enzyme and change its shape ­inhibitor: a substance that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity a) competitive inhibitors: compete with the substrate for the same active site,  occupying the same site and preventing the substance from binding b) non­competitive inhibitors: bind to the enzyme in another location, changing the  enzymes shape so the substrate can’t bind ­activator: a substance that binds to an enzyme that increases its activity ­allosteric site: other sites on an enzyme that inhibitors and activators can bind to ­cofactors: one or more non­protein components required by enzymes in order to  function, found in the active site of enzymes ­coenzyme: a non­protein organic molecule that plays an accessory role in enzyme­ catalyzed processes by acting as a donor or accepter of electrons  Metabolism: the total of all chemical reactions carried out by an organism ­anabolism: the chemical reactions that expand energy to build up molecules; needs an  energy input ­catabolism: reactions that harvest energy by breaking down molecules; releases energy ­biochemical pathways: a sequence of chemical reactions in which the product of one  reaction becomes the substrate of the next reaction ­feedback inhibition: control mechanism in which an increase in the concentration of  some molecules inhibits the synthesis of the molecule


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