US History, Week 2
US History, Week 2 US History 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shuashua Vang on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to US History 101 at College of Southern Nevada taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see US History in History at College of Southern Nevada.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
US History Lecture Notes Chapter 1 Europe in 1600 Politics and States I. Stable States ● France ● Spain and Portugal ● Russia ● Switzerland ● Netherlands (Holland) II. Surprise Powers ● Ottoman Empire ● Sweden ● Denmark ● Poland-Lithuania III. Divided States ● England/Scotland ● Italian Chaos ● Holy Roman Empire Long Reach of Feudalism ● Feudalism- political, social and In Holy Roman Empire economical system developed in the ollapse of Roman Empire. Kings and Bishops share equal power Originally, idea had been to protect local areas from invasion through the community. Offers the and economic collapse. ● Politically, system based on FIEF (local) personal loyalty. decentralized power & local authority of nobles who swear personal allegiance & support higher nobles, up to the king. ● While kings & nobles protect community physcologically, Christian Church provided spirituality (Christianity was main religion in Roman Empire.) ● Kings & Nobles weakened feudal political system by constant internal feuds. ● By 1600, Kings looking to change system by centralizing authority in hands of kings, rather than nobles and bishops. Feudalism and 3 Orders 1. Clergy - “Those who Pray” ● Secular clergy: priests, bishops -Some social mobility within the ● Regular clergy: monks, nuns system. Both nobles and commoners 2. Nobility - “Those who Fight” could join the clergy, and many ● Sword nobility: old aristocrats bourgeoisie joined the nobility. ● Robe nobility: new bureaucrats 3. Commons - “Those who Work” ● Peasants: agricultural workers ● Artisans: skilled craftsmen ● Bourgeoisie: urban professionals Economic The Feudal Village (Buckinghamshire/England) ● Peasants: majority of europeans (90%) ● Most lived in villages, working fields surrounding them. ● Serf: a peasant bound to the land - they cannot leave property w/o lord’s permission. Rare in western Europe by 1600, but expanding in eastern Europe. ● Artisans: millers, bakers, smiths, masons Open Field System ● Three-crop rotation system, A very successful system. ● About 50% of average family budget = food costs. ● Rotated crops for variety. Enclosure Movement ● Starts with nobles in 14th Century, who took land out of commoners for commerce. ● Quickly spreads to wealthier peasants. ● Idea spreads to strips & fields ● As Idea of enclosure spreads, emphasis shifts from community survival to maximize individual gain from property. The Development of Christianity ● 1054 Great Schism: Eastern Religions that were developed. Orthodox, Western Catholic ● 1517 Reformation: Roman Catholic (pope and state), Protestant, Lutheran. Anabaptist, Anglican (state), Calvinism (rejects state)
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