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Week 5 Notes, Nutrition

by: Smetana Larson

Week 5 Notes, Nutrition nsc170

Marketplace > University of Arizona > nsc170 > Week 5 Notes Nutrition
Smetana Larson

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Class notes from week 5
Nutrition Food and You
Dr. Ricketts
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Smetana Larson on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to nsc170 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Ricketts in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Nutrition, Food, and You NSC 170C1 Dr. Ricketts Monday 9/19/16 Bolded words are key words Important concepts, noted by professor, are highlighted *clicker questions which could be test questions Carbohydrates 1. Carbohydrate production a. Sun’s energy b. Carbon(carbon dioxide) c. Oxygen (carbon dioxide) d. Hydrogen (water) e. Organic nutrient (glucose) 2. Carbohydrate metabolism a. Energy for cellular functions i. Muscle contraction ii. Enzyme production iii. Bone growth b. Every cell in the body can use glucose as an energy source 3. Overconsumption a. Fructose damages the body in the brain, pancreas, heart, liver b. 80% of food in america has added sugars c. For the first time in history, children born today are not expected to live longer than their parents 4. Simple carbohydrates (-ose) a. Monosaccharides i. Glucose 1. Blood sugar 2. Fuel source a. Muscle cells b. Red blood cells (can't use fat/protein) c. Nervous system / brain cells want glucose - can adapt ii. Galactose 1. Uncommon in foods 2. Constituent of lactose (milk sugar) iii. Fructose 1. Fruit sugar; levulose 2. Naturally occurring (fruit, vegetables, honey, some vegetables) 3. Converted to glucose 4. Structural differences *Which of the following is not a monosaccharide? b. Disaccharides​ - two monosaccharide put together i. Lactose 1. Milk sugar 2. Glucose + galactose = lactose 3. Milk and some products made from milk have it ii. Maltose 1. Malt sugar 2. Glucose + glucose = maltose 3. Maltose syrup used in brewing beer and malt flavorings iii. Sucrose 1. Table sugar 2. Glucose + fructose = sucrose 3. Naturally occurring (honey, maple syrup, carrots, pineapple) 4. Refined from sugarcane and sugar beets c. High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) i. 45:55 glucose:fructose 1. Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose ii. Full digestion of carbohydrate results in 1. Monosaccharides iii. glucose , fructose, and galactose are absorbed into capillaries then go straight to liver iv. Why is HFCS bad though? 1. Refined carbohydrates a. Glucose b. Fructose c. Sucrose d. Refined starches 2. Very rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream 3. Very weak satiety response (leptin) d. Sweeteners i. Nutritive sweeteners 1. Sugars and syrups 2. 4 kcal/g 3. Food labels 4. HFCS a. Soft drinks b. Candies c. Baked goods 5. If it's on the food label, it's an added sugar ii. While there is still only 4 kcal/g, there is less of a signal saying you’re full e. Recent publication i. Scientific research and integrity 1. Sugar industry manipulated heart studies, review finds by Maggie Fox 2. Contributed fat to heart disease while the real cause is sugar 3. Global energy balance network (2014) a. Non profit promoted healthy living and energy balance b. Coca cola funded it and shifted the blame for obesity away from sugar c. Induction of hyperphagia and carbohydrate intake by opioid receptor stimulation in circumscribed regions of frontal cortex f. Sweeteners i. Non-nutritive (artificial) sweeteners 1. Manufactured 2. Saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, neotame, Monk fruit extract, Stevia leaf extract 3. More sweet than naturally occurring sugars 4. 0 kcal/g 5. Energy intake and body weight control 6. Excess calorie consumption - can trigger overeating because brain senses sweeteners but cells don't get glucose g. Starches i. Polysaccharides 1. Energy storage (limited amount of storage - rest as fat) 2. Plant structure 3. Starch (a bunch of glucose molecules linked together) a. Potatoes b. Root vegetables c. Storage form in plants d. Digestion - not absorbed as quickly e. Seeds,roots, and tubers i. Wheat, rice, barley, oats ii. Breads and cereals iii. Vegetables (corn, squash, beans, peas) iv. Tubers (potatoes, yams) 4. Glycogen​ (starch once it's in the body) a. Storage form in animals b. Liver and muscles store glycogen i. Muscles store some glucose h. Fiber i. Dietary fiber 1. Mostly glucose (looks like starch but linked different) 2. Mostly ​indigestible 3. Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, mucilages ii. Lignin iii. Only in plant foods 1. Soluble fiber - ​ attracts water (gel) and slows glucose absorption a. Many fruits 2. Insoluble fiber - ​ don’t draw water in but it still keeps you full a. All plants b. Wheat, rice, veggies iv. Health benefits 1. Blood cholesterol lowering through binding 2. Blood glucose control 3. Major food sources Wednesday 9/21/16 *Which disaccharide is incorrect? -> know maltose IS glucose + glucose *Know monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose *All polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, fiber (many monosaccharides linked together) 1. Fiber ​- cannot be digested a. Insoluble - aids in digestion b. Soluble - absorbs water and therefore monitors rate glucose enters bloodstream c. Most foods have a mix between soluble and insoluble fiber 2. You should eat 45 to 65% of your calories from carbohydrates (A ​ MDR) ​ 3. Digestive Tract a. Major organs i. Mouth - salivary amylase starts breaking down carbohydrates ii. Esophagus - just for transport iii. Stomach - salivary amylase is denatured from acid and only mechanical digestion occurs (turns food to chyme) iv. Small intestine - ​ hemical digestion, uses pancreatic amylase, produces lactase, maltase and sucrase (only monosaccharides can be absorbed) v. Large intestine - dietary fiber is not chemically digested b. Accessory organs i. Teeth ii. Tongue iii. Salivary glands iv. Liver v. Gall bladder vi. Pancreas - synthesizes and secretes amylase and sodium bicarbonate c. Absorption occurs once everything is broken down into monosaccharides 1. Glucose 2. Galactose 3. Fructose ii. Absorbed monosaccharides go directly from capillary to portal vein then to the liver iii. Liver converts galactose and fructose into glucose 1. HFCS/refined carbohydrates don’t have a strong satiety signal iv. Liver receives newly digested absorbed water-soluble nutrients v. Normal blood glucose range is 70 mg/dl to 100 mg/dl 1. Elevated blood glucose 2. Pancreas releases insulin 3. Glucose is transported to cells 4. Conversion of glucose into glycogen - muscles and liver store glycogen, liver glycogen can be released to blood stream 5. Normalization of blood glucose 6. Low blood glucose 7. Pancreas releases glucagon 8. Breakdown of liver glycogen stores 9. Increases gluconeogenesis 10. Normalization of blood glucose vi. Endocrine cells in the pancreas do the most work - glucagon or insulin these are both hormones that go in the bloodstream and send messages d. The fate of glucose i. Metabolized if needed ii. Glycogen storage 1. Liver 2. Muscle iii. Storage as fat iv. Limited ability for storage.. Must be: 1. Used for energy immediately 2. Converted to fa v. Glucose for energy 1. Metabolism a. Primary energy source for cells b. Red blood cells - n ​ o mitochondria c. Brain cells d. Carbon dioxide and water produced when cells use glucose and break it down vi. Low dietary carbohydrate 1. Fat metabolism becomes inefficient 2. Ketone bodies a. Muscle and brain cells b. Ketosis - this is when the bloodstream pH gets messed up 3. Need minimum of 130 g/day 4. Amino acids as a source of glucose *gluconeogenesis - making glucose from non glucose cells vii. Low carb, high protein diets 1. Weight loss 2. Proteins have more ketones so you feel fuller 3. Health concerns a. Low muscle glycogen b. Not replacing muscle glycogen releases water so you lose water weight c. The more muscle mass you have the more quickly you can lose weight from losing muscle glycogen d. High animal protein diets can lead to a negative calcium balance which is required to use amino acids -stresses kidneys


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