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History 105, week 1 (PRACTICE)

by: Cassidy Notetaker

History 105, week 1 (PRACTICE) hist 1302 - 10E

Marketplace > Texas A&M University > hist 1302 - 10E > History 105 week 1 PRACTICE
Cassidy Notetaker
Texas A&M

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US History
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1302 - 10E at Texas A&M University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
HIST 105 Clemente Gomez Office hours- glasscock 003, WED: 12-2, THUR: 8-9am, Email: John Wendt Office hours- glasscock 005A, TUES: 11-12:30, WED: 3:30-5 Email: Scantron form 882-E Look for lecture outlines on campus email 30% of exam questions come from textbook and primary documents- do your KEY TERMS!! 9.1 Expansion of Europe into America Models of interpretation (for understanding the European expansion)-  Conquest model- literally emphasizes the conquest of the Americas now see as deeply flawed for being racist, o tells the story of only “heroic European adventurers, missionaries”  opened the vast American continent to economic growth o made a hero of Christopher Columbus o treats native Americans and African Americans as only victims-very one-dimensional model  Holocaust Model- genocide o emphasis is on two great tragedies  loss of native American life  with Columbus opening them up to economic development  nearly 60 or 70 million native Americans lost their lives  second great tragedy is the institution of slavery  20-25 million Africans enslaved and brought to the Americas  principal cause of destruction of native American life- DISEASE  benefit- does emphasize the horrific tragedy that the loss of native American life was  Encounters model- historians currently favor this model o emphasize that the development of the Americas focusses on three groups of people with distinctive cultures and views, Europeans, Africans, native Americans  created all different societies o model says you cannot understand the story of America without appreciating the role of African Americans and native American roles o Columbian exchange- result in Europeans encountering the Americas, introduce domestic lifestyle and many plants and animals  “Raise the dead”- justice system where Indians would provide people to take to the place of those who had been killed  “Cover the dead”- justice system where Indians would provide gifts to cover the loss of the people who had been killed Spanish and Portuguese first European powers to get into the new world, English were late getting into this  King Henry VIII o began the story English expansion o 1509 married Catherine a Spanish woman, decided he wanted a divorce after 20 years  Did not get divorce because had to ask pope who was a family member of Catherine o Left the church of Rome and made his own church, Church of England, confiscated all church lands 25% of land in England- FOUR major consequences  Birth of Elizabeth 1 - ascended the throne in 1558-1603 (greatest English monarch in English history)- died in 1603  Long period of warfare between England and Spain- partly due to how henry treated Catherine  How the protestant reformation plays out- puritans those who want to rid the English church from all catholic ideas and practices  Economic transformation- grew directly out of henrys of confiscation of church lands, lots of real-estate boom, many lose jobs and home, created perception that there were too many English men and women- not enough land or jobs for all, ideology of finding somewhere else for surplus of people to go derives from this consequence- overseas expansion, o Fable of the Roanoke Lost Colony (1570-1580s)- people want to use America as place for overseas expansion, island of Roanoke off the coast North Carolina becomes first place of Europeans first attempt to create a colony  John White brings over 100 people to start colony, then leaves them to thrive while he goes home (1587) does not return for three years. When he returns he found houses and building in tack however all the people he had left were never to be found. He found a post with an Indian word written on it “croatoan”. Story of the colony in Roanoke ends there. 9.6 Establishing Jamestown, Chaos at Jamestown  Early history of Jamestown under the management of Virginia Company of London, 1607- 1618 o First permanent English colony o Founded by joint stock company (Virginia Company of London) hoped to emulate, follow the model, or example that Spain had demonstrated in Mexico  Hoped to encounter large populous groups of native Americans and put them to work  Planned to establish Jamestown, conquer Indians, exploit them, enslave them o Four vignettes- Four episodes of CHAOS  Winter 1609-1610—a time of starvation, disease, and cannibalism, only 60 of 500 survive  Predominantly male colony  August 1610—English settlers carry out a military raid against a nearby Indian village  English men get in dugout canoes, go upstream, burn houses, take prisoners-women leader, and some children prisoners  Along the way enroute back to Jamestown, throw children overboard and shoot them in the head, kill the women leader  Spring 1611—Governor Thomas Dale arrives at Jamestown and finds lazy English colonists who refuse to plant corn  Find the English men not working instead having a carnival of sorts, and show no interest in labor at all  Spring 1612—Governor Dale presides over the execution of settlers who have run away to live with the Native Americans  Some are hanged, some are burned to death, and tortured to death- using the wheel, because they had run away to live with the Indians and had been returned to Jamestown o Early Jamestown = absence of leadership, lazy Englishmen, lack of motivation, chaos, problem with the character of the settlers  Sent with the idea they could do things to get rich quickly- nothing went the way they thought o If the native Americans had not helped out the English men, they would have died instantly  Problems of early Jamestown and the colony of Virginia o Received charter from the King  Wanted to keep a close eye so he suggested to governing body would stay in London to pass governing advice and orders to the local governing body in Virginia o Absence of effective leadership and government  Captain John Smith- one of the English settlers  had to claim to be a leader  realist unlike fellow English settlers  someone who was able to quickly asses to reality and modify his behavior  forced some of the English to build homes, plant corn  injured in a gun powder explosion and had to return to England  was not in Jamestown during bad winter  king releases power of Jamestown in 1609  Lora Delaware appointed leader- chooses not to go  Not until 1611 when lord dale took leadership Jamestown was on its own o Labor problem– “lazy” Englishmen, Problem in the character of the Englishmen  Those who went to Jamestown also took large group of indentured servants  Usually teenage boys who agreed to spend 7 years working in Jamestown  Englishmen had peculiar work ethic  English authorities believed it would be better for all Englishmen to do a little work, rather than some doing it all and some doing none  This work ethic went with them to Jamestown- idea that they had to work only a couple hours a day o Character of the settlers–disjunction between original goals and the reality of the Chesapeake  Goals were to take over native Americans and use Jamestown possibly as a military base  Should have recruited young strong men who were willing to work, no women or children  When no goals are accomplished it was due to the Virginia Company of London had brought all the wrong people  Only 36 of the original brought over were listed as Gentlemen- basically the people who would tell the indentured servants what to do  6 highly craftsmen  Most of the original brought over servants  Disjunction between original goals and the ways they were sought out o Virginia’s Native Americans  Farmers, planters, hunters  Established a lifestyle that was decent living and had to interest in working for the English  Increasingly find that the Englishmen are the most rude  English eventually grow worse and worse and try to drive out the native Americans even though they were completely dependent of the native Americans for food for the first 5-6 years  From Company to Colony, 1618-1624- King withdraws charter in 1624 o By 1616-1618 everyone knew Jamestown was on the brink of failing- could not get people to go over to Jamestown due to the horrible mortality rate  Settlers dying from sickness, starvation, and cannibalism o Reforms of Sir Edwin Sandys 1618 trys to save Jamestown by setting up reforms  Offered indentured servants who agreed to go work for 7 years  a new type of servitude Tenancy- claim half the value of their masters earning, and if lived through 7 years of labor would receive 50 acres of land  Tried to change general reputation and improve living conditions  Laws Divine moral and marshall- set up death penalty for rape, theft, adultery, blasphemy- one settler had a needle stuck through his tongue for stealing a pint of oatmeal and left in the woods tied to a tree to die-instilled by Dale o Sandys got rid of the marshall law, thought law was intollerable  Offer potential new investors an incentive  Head Right System: offer an investor to go to Jamestown would receive 50 acres of land + an additional 50 acres for each servant he brings with him to Jamestown- provides both land and labor- 2 resources critical to benefiting town  Self government-  House of Burgesses- only stock holders in London company could be members  All of his efforts are too late o Continuing problems–high mortality among settlers, Indian attack of 1622  Native americans seemed determined to take back what rightfully theirs- drive Englishmen into the waters  Roughly 35% of English settlers were killed o Revocation of charter, Virginia becomes a royal colony  1624-1776 Virginia becomes royal colony directly under the reign on London  Tobacco Boom- saves Virginia o 1612- John Ralph introduces variety of west Indian tobacco into Virginia  Few years later 35 thousand pound of tobacco exported back to England  Tobacco become economic bonanza and saves Virginia o Need for white servant labor to work the fields  Could make more money from tobacco in a single year than an English labor could make in a lifetime  Key to keeping up with tobacco boom is the labor not the land- Virginia had plenty of land, best tobacco land was located on the rivers  Tobacco is a labor intensive crop o Sewing, transplanting, marketing, exporting, etc.  Labor comes from white servant labor who works tobacco labor o Servants exploited horribly, worked to death in the fields- bad mortality rate o Impact of tobacco on Virginia society  Settling Down, 1630's and 1640's o Death rate declines o Pastoral agriculture takes hold o Living with impermanence


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