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Test 1 Notes Chapter 1,2,3,10,12 Chapter 1: Crime and Criminology Criminology is the academic discipline that uses the scientific method to study the nature, extent, cause, and control, of criminal behavior. Criminologists remain objective, unbiased, and impartial about the behaviors they study What is Criminology? Sutherland and Cressy defined criminology as the body of knowledge regarding crime, as a social phenomenon the objective of criminology is the development of a body of general and verified principles and of other types of knowledge regarding this process of law, crime, and treatment. Crime is a social phenomenon o Most believe that social factors are at the root cause of crime. Their environment and their social interactions and personal relationships influence even the most disturbed people. The process of making laws o How and why laws are created and why some are strengthened and others eliminated is of great interest to criminologists. Breaking laws and reacting toward the breaking of laws o Why do people commit illegal acts, and what can be done to convince them- and others who are contemplating crime- that it is in their best interest to turn their back on criminality? It is impossible to effectively control crime unless we understand its cause. Development of a body of general and verified principles o Criminology is a social science and criminologists use the scientific method. They are required to employ valid and reliable experimental designs and sophisticated data analysis techniques. Criminology and Criminal Justice Criminology explains the etiology (origin), extent, and nature of crime in society. o Concerned with identifying the suspected cause of crime. Criminal justice refers to the study of the agencies of social control- police, courts, and corrections- that arrest, prosecute, convict, and treat criminal offenders. o Criminal justice scholars identify effective methods of crime control Criminology and the Sociology of Deviance Deviant behaviors are those actions that depart from social norms, values, and beliefs. It is erroneous to argue that all crimes are deviant behaviors that depart from the norms of society (buying and selling marijuana; a significant percent of the population engages in smoking marijuana and half of students try it before graduating high school). Many deviant acts are not criminal Deviance vs. Crime Deviant behavior- any action that departs from the social norms, values, and beliefs of society (not breaking law, but not obeying norms) o Ex. smoking, tattoos, facing towards the back of the elevator, etc. Deviance- includes broad spectrum of behaviors o Deviant behaviors can also be a crimes; i.e. murder Becomes a crime when it is deemed socially harmful or dangerous Society has decided what is deviant as a whole Justice system decides what is legal/illegal Deviant behavior becomes a crime and is-- defined, prohibited, punished under criminal law All criminal acts are deviant, but not everything that is deviant is criminal What do Criminologist Do: Criminology in Action Criminology in action refers to the efforts of criminologists to use their insight, training, and experience to understand human behavior and predict its occurrence. Three Views of Crime 1. Consensus View of Crime Involves law (written code) that defines crime o Statutes/laws Put into effect because they reflect the values, beliefs, and opinions of society’s mainstream The law reflects public opinions o As technology/opinions change, so will law o Crimes are behaviors that are believed to be repugnant to all elements of society Laws apply uniformly to all citizens Behaviors that cause social harm must be controlled o Social harm: harm to other people in society Ex. murder, burglary, kidnapping, etc. 2. Conflict View of Crime Society is a collection of diverse groups and they are in constant conflict o Owners, workers, professionals, students, etc. o Hierarchy- always in conflict with people above/below you The law is a tool of the ruling class o Create laws to keep their power, etc. o Ex. crack cocaine (cheap)- need 5 grams for 5 year-- powder cocaine (expensive)- used by upper class- need 500 grams for 5 years Crime is a political concept The law is used to control the underclass 3. Interactionist View of Crime People act according to their own interpretations of reality o They observe others and reevaluate/interpret their own behavior according to the meanings they have learned from others Some instances you have direct observations and learn from those (“if you do this, then this will happen”) but in other instances, you see it happening to other people Law and crime definitions depend on human interactions and perceptions o Interpretation of where you are (local jurisdiction- not all places have the same laws or implement them the same, etc.) o Criminals are labeled as such because they have violated social rules Acts become crimes because society defines them that way, not because they are inherently evil or immoral acts o Ex. crack down on meth labs (not evil, but the city decides to do this) The definition of crime evolves according to the moral standards of those in power Contemporary Criminal Law Function or law is to control peoples behavior Acts prohibited by criminal laws constitute behaviors considered unacceptable and impermissible by those in power (sort of takes conflict views- more than just acts that cause social harm) Criminal Law: o 1. Felonies 7 index crimes Punishable by more than one year in prison/hard labor/death o 2. Misdemeanors Minor/petty crimes Disturbing the peace, public intoxication, traffic violations etc. Punishable by less than one year in prison/fines o Rules to follow: 1. Can’t be over broad 2. Can’t criminalize a persons status 3. Ex Post Facto Ex. tomorrow cigarettes are banned, can’t go back and say that everyone who smoke yesterday committed a crime o 2 types of Criminal Law: 1. Substantive Criminal Law- body of specific laws that declare what is criminal and then give punishments for those 2. Procedural Criminal Law- criminal justice (procedure of: arresting, indictment, sending them to trial, etc.) Purposes of Criminal Law: o Deterrence- Want to deter people from committing crime because of a fear of punishment By setting an example- people go to jail, setting example for what other people don’t want to have happen o Social Control- Prohibit behaviors harmful to others o Maintain Social Order- Makes clear what behaviors are acceptable/which are unacceptable o Express Morality Reflect public opinion and morality o Equity Make criminals pay back for their crimes o Punishment Punish wrongdoing o Retribution Eliminate need for personal revenge 2 types of Criminal Law: o 1. Mala in se-- more serious types of crimes Considered to be crimes because they are inherently evil acts (they would be considered wrong even if there was no law against it) Ex. torture, murder, rape, etc. o 2. Mala prohibitum Considered a crime because there is a law that says they are crimes-- not necessarily evil, but because we think they are bad (defined by the law-making part) Constantly always changing Ex. alcohol (prohibition-- now legal at 21) Criminalization: Act of making something criminal At one point it was okay, but then we made it criminalized Decriminalization: Act of making something not criminal Ex. abortion Crime and the Law Elements of Criminal Law For someone to be prosecuted for an actual crime, they have to have done the act and have to have intended to do the act knowing it would cause harm. both have to go together. Actus Reus- the actual act; the accused being committed of a guilty act; must be voluntary (it is not considered a crime if done on accident or was an involuntary act); it can also be the failure to act (in some instances it is a crime not to do something like paying your taxes or ignoring a parent neglecting to seek medical attention for his or her child). In some cases, the use of words is considered criminal (if a person falsely yells fire ad people are injured in the rush to get out). o Failure to act: Relationship of the parties based on status: some people are bound by relationship to give aid (parent/child and husband/wife). Imposition by Statute: people are required to give aid (seeing a vehicle broken down in the desert) Contractual Relationships: these relationships include lifeguard and swimmer, doctor and patient, and babysitter and child. They have been hired to ensure the safety of the other person. Mens Rea- the mental state that goes with the act. This means guilty mind. This is where the mindset for committing the act came from. For an act to be considered a crime, the act must be carried out intentionally, willingly, and knowingly. In some cases, recklessness or negligence establish the required criminal intent. Actus Rea and Mens Rea have to happen together. I can ponder all day long about wanting to kill my husband (mindset). On the way home he dies in a car accident. I had the intentions to kill him, but I didn’t actually do it. Age is a factor in crime. A child does not have the mindset to have a guilty mind following a criminal act. Several crimes defined by statute do not require mens rea. In these cases, the person is guilty sinply by doing what the statute prohibits (speeding, violating health and safety regulations, and narcotic control laws). Thee crimes are meant to protect the public. No intent is required. Criminal Defenses Defendants may deny the actus reus by arguing that they were falsely accused and that the real culprit has yet to be identified. Defendants may claim that although they engaged in criminal acts of which they are accused, they lacked the mens rea needed to be found guilty of the crime. Insanity, intoxication, and ignorance are some excuse defenses. Another type of defense is justification. Here, the individual admits to committing the crime, but argues that he or she should not be convicted because the crime was justified. Examples include: self defense, entrapment, and duress. The evolution of Criminal Law Criminal law is constantly evolving in an effort to reflect social and economic conditions Identity theft, credit card stalking has evolved due to technology. Technology provides new ways for us to become victims. Change may be prompted by highly publicized criminal cases Change may be prompted by shifts in culture and social conventions. (Our view on marijuana) The future direction of criminal law remains unclear. Its difficult to predict what is going to happen. Examples of the evolution of criminal law: Stalking laws; cyber stalking: the willful, malicious, and repeated following and harassing of another person. Prohibiting assisted suicide: Registering sex offenders o Sex offender registration: register individuals convicted of sex crimes against children and establish a community notification system. o Community notification: private and personal information on registered sex offenders available to the public. Clarifying rape (it used to be the case that rape was defined that it had to be forcible and only could happen to women; now, the definition of rape has changed from forcible rape to a very detailed definition and leaves the act open to males and females). The victim can consent to sex, the sex act begins, the victim changes his or her mind during the act and tells their partner to stop, and the partner refuses and continues. Controlling technology (technology increases the ways in which people commit crimes) Protecting the environment Legalizing marijuana: the use of medical marijuana Terrorism (terrorists are becoming more sophisticated; stopping them is becoming more and more difficult) Ethical issues in criminology There are political and social consequences from results of criminological research; Need to be aware of ethical issues Debates over gun control, capital punishment, and mandatory sentences are ongoing and contentious. Major ethical issues include: o What to study o Whom to study (victims and criminals need to be studied) o How to conduct studies Tuskegee syphilis study o They withheld medical treatment just to see what would happen Institutional review board Chapter 2: The Nature and Extent of Crime Primary Sources of Crime Data Official Records: The Uniform Crime Report FBI collects data on crimes reported to local police departments and the number of arrests made by police agencies UCR has been in existence sine the 1930’s when the bureau of investigation was first established. J. Edgar Hoover implemented the collection of data. Participation is voluntary for law enforcement, so it’s gotten better and better over the years. Information that they are collecting are on Index crimes or Part I crimes. There are 8 part I crimes, everything else is considered Part II They select these crimes because they happen the most often and are the most serious. UCR Part I Offenses o Violent Crimes Murder - the willful (non-negligent) killing of one human being by another. Rape- penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. Aggravated Assault- an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. Robbery (this is robbery between person and person; your house is not robbed- that is burglarized)- the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear. o Property Crimes Larceny/Theft (someone is taking something from your constructive possession; someone stealing my purse when I am using the bathroom)- the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another. Burglary- the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. Motor vehicle theft- the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. Arson- any willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. Compiling the UCR Three methods to express crime data: o The number of crimes reported and arrests made. o Crime rates per 100,000 people (crime rate takes the number of crimes and divides it by the population of 100,000; **when you say you have a homicide rate of 4.5, it means that for every 100,000 people in your population, approximately 4.5 of them will be killed in one year.) o Changes in rate of crime over time (say the homicide rate in 1995 was 7, and now it is 4.5, this tells us that the rate is going down. Now, there are less murders PER CAPITA because the population has increased.) o Clearance rates (these are crimes that the police can say the case is closed) Crimes cleared in two ways: When at least one person is arrested, charged, or turned over to the courts for prosecution. By exceptional means (they commit suicide, or are killed during police chase, victim doesn’t want to press charges, etc.). If you have a high clearance rate, that means you are able to solve most of the cases that are brought before you. Homicide has the highest clearance rate of all cases. It’s really hard not to know that a homicide has happened. With aggravated assault, you never really know if it happened, the victim waited too long to come forward, there is little evidence, etc. Surveys National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) o Started in 1973 o Provides information on victims Designed to capture crimes not reported to police o Collected by U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Justice Statistics o Samples about 150,000 respondents 12 and over every 6 months o Collects data on: Personal Crimes: Rape/sexual attack Robbery Aggravated and simple assault Purse snatching/pick-pocketing Property Crimes: Burglary Theft Motor vehicle theft Vandalism o Advantages: Provide detailed information on the incident, victim, and perceived offender(s) Provides information on whether or not it was reported to the police and why/why not o Disadvantages Over reporting Ex. Might think someone stole you wallet, but you might have actually lost it Underreporting Interviewer effects Might not want to tell someone face to face about a rape (can be because you are female and the interviewer is male or because younger kids don’t want to report it at all, etc.) Social desirability Giving answers you think the interviewer wants to hear but is not necessarily the truth Telescoping (over reporting) NCVS asks if you were a victim in the last 6 months so you say yes, but really the crime happened a longer time ago than that Memory decay (under reporting) Were a victim but you forgot Hesitant to report crimes committed by relatives Has a limited range of crimes No minor or commercial crimes 3. Other National Surveys US Census General Social Survey Supplemental Homicide Reports National Survey on Drug use and Health Monitoring the Future Survey (kids in 8 , 10 , and 12 grade) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Self-Report Surveys o Self report their crime or victimization o Not always going to be national (focuses on minor/petty crimes) Example of Crime Rate Crime Rate: (#reported crimes/population)* 100,000 US Homicide Rate o (17,000 homicides/300 million people)* 100,000= 5.7 For every 100,000 people, there are about 6 homicides City of Baton Rouge, 2009 o (40 murders/255,388 total population)* 100,000= 15.66 Disadvantages of Official Statistics Only capture reported crimes o Reported crimes could depend on- monetary value of thing, the relationship you have with the offender Reporting errors/inconsistencies o FBI gives ‘official definition’ of what murder is, what aggravated assault is, etc. however, these can differ from place to place Hierarchy rule o Only applies to UCR, not NIBRS data This is because NIBRS is an incident based reporting system so everything gets reported When more than one part 1 offense is classified, the law enforcement must find the highest ranked crime on the hierarchy: highest ranked to lowest ranked-- Homicide Rape Robbery Aggravated assault Burglary Larsony theft Motor vehicle theft Arson 3 exceptions to the rule: no matter what crimes are reported, these three will always get reported 1. Motor vehicle 2. Justifiable homicide 3. Arson The exceptions get reported as well as the next highest ranked crime Benign neglect o Large jurisdiction, limited police force- most dangerous/frequent crimes are the ones police will only focus on Completed vs. attempted crimes o Both get reported into crime data Administrative issues Evaluating Crime Data Each source of crime data has strengths/weaknesses All sources record similar trends regarding personal characteristics of serious offenders, and when and where the crime occurs Sources are reliable and valid indicators of changes and fluctuations in yearly crime rates Crime Trends Between 1960 & 1970, crime increased by 144%, population only increased by 13% Another peak in 1980- highest homicide rate in country (10.7 for every 100,000 people) o Crack became popular, etc. Early 90’s- second highest homicide rate Dramatic crime decline after the 90’s o Baby boomers are reaching the age where they don’t commit crimes Homicide victims AND offenders are between the ages of 18-24 When crime is high, ALL crime is high (visa-versa) Crime Patterns Age and Crime Age crime curve- both curve together Property crime arrests typically peak at age 16, drop in half by age 20 (peaks higher and earlier) Violent crime arrests typically peak at age 18 Lesser developed countries do not have an age-crime curve o No transition to adulthood in these countries Social factors Cognitive development Biological/psychological factors Social status/role Gender and Crime Males have higher rates than females o Arrests- males: 75%, females: 25% Female involvement in predatory crime is low o Involvement in non-personal crimes is higher o Larceny theft arrests- males: 59%, females: 41% Differing homicide rates Why do crimes differ by gender? o Social organization of gender Gender norms Moral development Social control Physical attributes/strength/aggression o Motivation for crime (lower for women) o Context of offending o Cognitive differences Women have better verbal skills (better at talking through arguments rather than resorting to violence) Socioeconomic Status and Crime Poverty and unemployment o Poor doesn’t = crime, there are other factors that contribute Linked to crime all over the world, not just in the US Other factors Summertime (August and July have highest crime rates, December and January have the lowest) Urban/Rural differences (urban has higher crime rate) Regional differences (south has higher crime rate) Race and Crime Industrialization The Great Migration Deindustrialization (60’s/70’s) Hyper-Deprivation o Industrial drift (deindustrialization) o Spatial mismatch (not living in a place where you job is) o Social and economic isolation o Segregation Wasn’t just race segregation-- ethnic and social class segregation also Institutions and Crime Family Education o People with better education-- typically have higher family income, family is in middle/higher class o Lower education, higher crime rates (visa-versa) Religion o High rates of religious involvement, lower rates of crime Chapter 3: Victims and Victimization Victimology The study of the victim’s role in criminal events Criminologists who focus on crime victims are known as Victimologists Toll of Victimization on Society NCVS reported over 20 million victimization incidents in 2009 o 78% are property crimes The Crime Event o Time of occurrence Most rapes (over ½) occur at night All violent crimes are about ½ and ½ Most property crime happens during the day (except for motor vehicle theft- most likely happens at night) o Place of Occurrence 1/3 of all violent crimes are occurring in/near the victims home 30% actually happen in the home 22% took you away from home (vacation, etc.) 16% occur at work or on your way to/from work Urban- City/metropolitan areas- higher rates of violent crimes/theft o Distance from home 58% of all violent homes occurred within a mile of the person’s home only 3% occurred more than 50 miles from the home o Injury and Medical Care 13% need some kind of medical care after victimization Majority are robbery/assault victims o Time loss from work 7% of victims lose time from work o Economic Loss o Recovery of losses 35% recover all of their losses from motor vehicle theft o Weapon Use Important Victim Characteristics Males have higher victimization than females Men more likely to be victims of violent crimes (2/3 of women are victimized by someone they know) Blacks more likely than whites to be victims Deviant places=dangerous places Social Status o Violent victimization rates and property crime rates are inversely related to household income (high victimization, low income- low victimization, high income) o Larger households have higher rates of victimization Marital Status o Divorced, separated, or never-married have higher victimization rates than married or widowed o Relationship influenced by age and lifestyle Repeat Victimization o Fairly common occurrence Past crime victims have a higher chance of future victimization Victimized households are most likely to experience it again in the future Most repeat victimization occurs soon after the previous crime (offenders know what is left, must do it soon before the victims have a chance to put up things that could stop you) o Three characteristics that increase potential for victimization Target vulnerability Target gratifiability Target antagonism Challenging someone, being armed, etc. Chapter 10: Interpersonal Violence The Cases of Violence Psychological/biological abnormality o Kids who kill may suffer from neurological impairment, low intelligence, or psychotic symptoms. None of these symptoms are 100% deterministic. They just increase your chances of being a violent person. Human Evolution and Instinct o Freud Humans possess two opposing instinctual drives that interact to control behavior. Eros= the life instinct and Thanatos= the death instinct. o Lorenz Aggressive energy is produced by inbred instincts that are independent of environmental forces. Animals such as lions or tigers have an aggressive instinct to survive, but know better than to attack their own kind. Unlike animals, humans are willing to hurt on another within species to survive. Humans lack inhibition against fatal violence. o Collins Humans are inherently passive, and violence is a function of social interaction. Collins argues that when presented with a violent scenario, most humans shy away from that. Substance Abuse o Substance abuse has been linked to violence in one of three ways: Psychopharmacological relationship: violence is the direct consequence of ingesting these drugs. These mood-altering substances have a direct relationship to violence. Economic compulsive behavior: when you start to withdraw from drugs, you want more. Drugs cost money, but you don’t have money. You find a way to get the money you need to get your fix. You steal and sell the item for cash. You rob people or steal purses. Some sort of violence occurs to get your fix. Systemic link: the people who sell drugs are linked to violent behavior. If you are a drug dealer, there is a probability to be a victim. If a drug dealer is robbed (the victim), he or she will retaliate by protecting him or her self. The drug deal can be the victim of violence, but he or she can also be the perpetrator of violence. The link is between the people who sell the drugs and the violence that surrounds them. Socialization and Upbringing o Usually, your first institution of socialization is your family. Your family teaches you violence is a potential problem and how to react to violence. They tell you what behaviors are acceptable and unacceptable. Some families value violence as the answer, while other families believe using your words is the best way to solve a violent situation. Witnessing abuse in the home can teach a child that violence is normal. Absent or Deviant parents: A parent that doesn’t pay enough attention to their child may cause the child to roam the streets and pick up on bad things or hang out with bad people. A parent that does drugs or any other deviant behavior may teach the child that it is normal. Inconsistent discipline Physical abuse Lack of supervision Physical punishment Abused children: early childhood victims in high criminality risk group; abused children have only ever known abuse so when they grow up, the cycle continues, and the child treats his or her children that way (The Cycle of Violence). Exposure to Violence o People who are constantly exposed to violence may adapt violent methods themselves or ‘crust over’. When all you’ve ever know is a violent home, that’s all you’ve ever known and you grow up to live in your own violent home. Between 30-40% of children who have reported being exposed to violence also exposed some violent behavior themselves. Being exposed to abusive behavior is not deterministic. It increases your chances of becoming a violent person, but it does not mean you will be violent. Being exposed to gun violence doubles your chances of becoming violent later in life. Although it’s doubling your chances, it is still not deterministic. Cultural Values: Subculture of Violence o Violence is the product of cultural beliefs, values, and behaviors that develop in poor and disorganized neighborhoods. The gang subculture: gangs are mostly present in poor and disorganized neighborhoods only because they can get away with their way of life more than they would be able to in higher class neighborhoods. Gangs are typically located all together. Poor areas have more violence, so gangs reside more in those areas. The south as a subculture of violence, because, here, we are taught defending ourselves is acceptable. Violent Crimes Homicide CHAPTER 1: CRIME & CRIMINOLOGY DEVIANCE vs. CRIME Deviant Behavior – any action that departs from the social norms, values, & beliefs of society o EX = smoking, tattoos, facing the back of the elevator o Deviance includes a broad spectrum of behaviors o Can be legal or illegal o A deviant act becomes a crime when it is deemed socially harmful or dangerous o Society decides what behavior is deviant Crime – defined, prohibited, & punished under criminal law o All criminal acts are deviant, but not everything that is deviant is criminal VIEWS OF CRIME 1.) Consensus View o Most popular o The law (written code) defines crime Reflects the values, beliefs, & opinions of society’s mainstream o The law reflects public opinion (EX = abortion use to be illegal) Crimes are behaviors believed to be repugnant to all elements of society o Laws apply uniformly to all citizens o Behaviors that cause social harm must be controlled 2.) Conflict View o Society is a collection of diverse groups & they are in constant conflict – owners, workers, professionals, students, etc. o The law is a tool of the ruling class (political) EX = 5 years in jail for 5 grams of crack coke & 5 years for 500 grams of powder coke o The law is used to control the underclass 3.) Interactionist View o People act according to their own interpretations of reality They observe others & reevaluate & interpret their own behavior according to the meanings they have learned from others o Law & crime definitions depend on human interactions & perceptions Criminals are individuals labeled as such because they have violated social rules o Acts become crimes because society defines them that way, not because they are inherently evil or immoral acts o The definition of crime evolves according to the moral standards of those in power CONTEMPORARY CRIMINAL LAW Acts prohibited by criminal laws constitute behaviors considered unacceptable & impermissible by those in power Criminal Law o Felonies (serious offense) & Misdemeanors (minor crime) Page 1 of 17 o Rules to follow when defining crime: rule cannot be too broad, can’t criminalize a person’s status, Ex Post Facto (can’t pass law & go back & charge people for it if it wasn’t a crime when they did it) o 1.) Substantive Criminal Law – body of rules that declare what behavior is criminal & prescribe punishment o 2.) Procedural Criminal Law – rules & laws that define the operation of the criminal proceedings Purposes of Criminal Law: Types Of Criminal Law: o Mala in se – crimes b/c they are inherently evil acts; acts that would be considered wrong even if they weren’t crimes (EX = torture, murder, rape) o Mala prohibitum – crimes that are considered a crime b/c the law says they are a crime; defined by the law-making part of gov’t; may be legal in one country & illegal in another; reflect existing social conditions (always changing, EX = alcohol) Criminalization – the act of making something criminal (EX = prohibition) Decriminalization – taking something that was illegal & making it legal (EX = abortion, sexual activity b/w same sex) CRIMINOLOGY IS… … the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the process of making laws, of breaking laws, & of reacting toward the breaking of laws The objective of criminology is the development of a body of general & verified principles & of other types of knowledge regarding this process of law, crime & treatment Page 2 of 17 CRIMINOLOGY Criminology – an integrated approach to the study of the nature, extent, cause, & control of criminal behavior; an interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime & criminal behavior; not the same as criminal justice Criminologist – one who is trained in the field of criminology; one who studies crime; potential areas of specialization: o Criminal statistics & research methodology o Sociology of the law o Theory construction o Criminal behavior systems o Penology & social control o Victimology WHY STUDY CRIME? Crime is interesting Crime cost everyone lots of money Fear of crime shapes many people’s behavior Crime reflects/is behavior we (as a society) deem unacceptable If we don’t understand where, when, & why crimes occur, there is no way for us to control crime HOW CRIMINOLOGISTS STUDY CRIME Surveys Cohort research (EX = everyone who enters LSU the same year is the Freshman cohort) o Cohort – group of people that have something in common & you can consider them a group Aggregate data (most popular; EX = census) o Someone is doing the survey for you & you just collect the data & get the #s Experiments (not very popular in SOCL) Observational research Mixed methods ETHICS Major ethical issues in criminological research include: o What to study o Whom to study o How to study American Society of Criminology Code of Ethics IRB (Institutional Review Board) – responsible for ensuring the safety of people enrolled in research studies; exists b/c: o Stanley Milgram Obedience to Authority o Laud Humphreys Tearoom Trade Studied secret male homosexuality in public restrooms Page 3 of 17 CHAPTER 2: THE NATURE & EXTENT OF CRIME PRIMARY SOURCES OF CRIME DATA Official Statistics o Come from some type of law-enforcement agencies o Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) o National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Surveys o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) o Self-report surveys UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS (UCR) Program run by the FBI Started in the 1930’s (oldest source of crime data in the US) Collects data from more than 17,000 agencies nationwide Only measures crimes that are reported to the police & arrests Agency reporting is voluntary PART-1 INDEX CRIMES 2 categories: violent crimes & property crimes Violent Crimes Property Crimes Homicide Burglary Motor Vehicle Theft Robbery (MVT) Forcible Rape Larceny-Theft Aggravated Assault Arson Page 4 of 17 NATIONAL INCIDENT-BASED REPORTING SYSTEM (NIBRS) Part of the UCR program Begun in 1982 It is an incident based system o UCR reports monthly aggregate counts, NIBRS provides info on individual incidents It is resources-intensive & collects a tremendous amount of detail on each crime Updated the definition of “rape” (man/woman forcing a woman – has to be a woman) In 2007, 6,444 agencies reported NIBRS data to the UCR program, covering about 25% of the US population & 25% of UCR crime statistics EXAMPLE OF CRIME RATES Crime Rate = (# of reported crimes ÷ population) x 100,000 US Homicide Rate (17,000 homicides ÷ 300 million people) x 100,000 = 5.7 o 5.7 means that for every 100,000 people there are about 6 homicides City of Baton Rouge, 2009 (40 murders ÷ 255,388 total pop.) x 100,000 = 15.66 DISADVANTAGES OF OFFICIAL STATISTICS? Only capture reported crimes o MVT is most reported Reporting errors/inconsistencies Hierarchy rule o Only applies to UCR data o When more than one part one offense is classified, the law enforcement agency must locate the offense that is highest on the list, score that one, & report it o #1 = Homicide, #2 = Rape, #3 = Robbery, #4 = Aggravated Assault o 3 exceptions to the rule: no matter what crimes are committed, these 3 crimes always get reported… (1) MVT; (2) justifiable homicide; (3) arson Justifiable Homicide = self-defense; always happens with another crime Benign neglect o Mainly happens in big cities b/c cops can’t deal with every crime (high-crime urban areas) Completed vs. Attempted Crimes Administrative Issues NATIONAL CRIME VICTIMIZATION SURVEY (NCVS) Started in 1973 Provides info on victims o Designed to capture crimes not reported to police Collected by the US Census Bureau for the Bureau of Justice Statistics Largest on-going survey in the US 150,000 respondents 12 & over every 6 months Collects data on: Page 5 of 17 Personal Crimes Property Crimes Rape & sexual attack Burglary Robbery Theft Aggravated & simple assault Motor Vehicle Theft (MVT) Purse snatching/pick-pocketing Vandalism o *Homicides are not on here b/c you can’t interview a dead person NCVS ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES Advantages: o Provides detailed info on the incident, victim, & offender(s) o Provides info on whether or not it was reported to the police & why or why not Disadvantages: o Overreporting Telescoping – lying about the time a crime happened (EX = asked if you were a victim of a crime within the last 6 months, you say yes but it was really 8 months ago) o Underreporting Interviewer Effects = a person you don’t know interviewing you effects what you say Social Desirability – giving the interviewer what you think they want to hear Memory decay (forget a crime, so it goes unreported) Hesitant to report crimes committed by relatives Has a limited range of crimes (no minor or commercial crimes) OTHER NATIONAL SURVEYS US Census General Social Survey Supplemental Homicide Reports National Survey on Drug Use & Health Monitoring the Future Survey National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Self-Report Surveys EVALUATING CRIME DATA Each source of crime data has strengths & weaknesses All sources record similar trends regarding personal characteristics of serious offenders, & when & where the crime occurs Sources are reliable & valid indicators of changes & fluctuations in yearly crime rates Page 6 of 17 CRIME TRENDS Homicide rate highest in 1980s CRIME PATTERNS Age & Crime o Property crime spikes between ages 15-24 (peaks at 16, drops in half by 24) o Ages 15-24 is when you’re most likely to be a victim & offender o Lesser developed countries do not have an age-crime curve o Transition to adulthood in Industrialized countries Social factors Cognitive development (as people get older & mature, they grow out of crime) Biological/psychological factors (crime is physically demanding– easier when young) Social status/role GENDER & CRIME Males have higher rates than females o Arrests: males = 75%, females = 25% Female involvement in predatory crime is low o Women usually involved in non-personal crimes Larceny-Theft arrests: males = 59%, female = 41% Homicide arrests: males = 89%, female = 11% As women are gaining equality, their rates are coming closer to men’s & bringing male rates down WHY DO CRIMES DIFFER BY GENDER? Social Organization Of Gender: o Gender norms (women more nurturing & men more aggressive) o Moral development o Social control o Physical attributes/strength/aggression Motivation For Crime: o Women have low tolerance for risk (not risk takers) Context of Offending: o Males tend to kill b/c of arguments, their honor, injustice, etc. o Women tend to kill for protection of children, or in reaction to someone provoking them Cognitive Differences: Page 7 of 17 o Women have better verbal skills (they talk out their differences & men resort to violence) Social / Political Differences: o Women are becoming more equal since 1970s feminists movement nd o Women stopped being treated like 2 class citizens o Women caught up with men in criminality, but also bring men in criminality down SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS & CRIME Poverty & Unemployment Linked to crime all over the world, not just in the US OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING CRIME PATTERNS Time Of Year: o Summertime has highest crime rates Urban/Rural Differences: o Urban areas have much higher crime rates than rural areas Regional Differences: o South & West have higher crime rates Low Economic Status: o CRIME BY RACE & AGE Blacks make up 13% of US population (39% of property crimes & 23% of violent crimes) RACE & CRIME Industrialization: o Late 1800s to early 1900s Page 8 of 17 o Changed from rural to urban life The Great Migration: o 1910-1940 o African Americans (about 1.75 million) move from South to North o Escaped from racism to get jobs & provide for families Deindustrialization: o 1960s-1970s (after WWII) o Factories moving out of the cities to overseas o Black middle class first emerged – those who had enough $ left to go to the suburbs Hyper-Deprivation: o Industrial Drift – lower class jobs; factories & steel mills moving to suburbs; led to… o Spatial Mismatch – low skill people are no longer where the low skill jobs are o Social & Economic Isolation – inner city; socially & economically isolated from people who give them jobs (their networks of coworkers); strong ties are family & friends; o Segregation INSTITUTIONS & CRIME Family o Positive experience with family = less crime Education Religion Page 9 of 17 CHAPTER 10: VIOLENT CRIME VIOLENT CRIME STATISTICS, 2009 # Rate (per Crime Reported 100,000) HOMICIDE Homicide 15,241 5.0 Homic Forcible Rape 88,097 28.7 i de – the willful Robbery 408,217 133.0 (non-negligent) Aggravated killing of Assault 806,843 262.8 one human being by another; suicides not included Types: o First-Degree (pre-meditation; deliberation) o Second-Degree (fore-thought is not involved; evil intent is there) o Manslaughter (no pre-meditation; no evil intent); 2 types: 1.) Voluntary / Non-Negligent – heat of passion or sudden quarrel provoking violence 2.) Involuntary / Negligent – acts are negligent & without regard for the harm they may cause others; careless disregard for others (EX = vehicular homicide, leaving kid in car, someone dies while you’re lifeguarding) Homicide rate has steadily decreased since 1991 (1991 = 9.8, 2008 = 5.4) NATURE OF MURDER Location: o 89.3% within Metropolitan Statistical Areas o 9.03% in cities outside metropolitan areas o 4.64% in nonmetropolitan counties Age: most offenders are under the age of 35 (1/3 of victims & ½ of offenders are under 25) Race: blacks are disproportionately victims & offenders (intra-racial crime) Sex: mostly a male crime (90%); intimate homicides are usually brutal & cross- gendered Victims (offender/victim): both victim & offender are usually male o Male/Male = 65.2%; Male/Female = 25%; Female/Male = 7.2%; Female/Female = 2.6% Context: usually a minor altercation that escalated into someone being killed o 25% victim precipitated homicide (not total bystander, engaged in argument) FORCIBLE RAPE Forcible Rape – the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly & against her will Statutory rape not included Aggravated Rape: Page 10 of 17 o Usually carries more of a penalty o Under age of 12 or over age of 65 o Weapon involved o More than 2 offenders Age & Race: o ½ of all victims are usually under the age 25 & about 2/3 victims are white NCVS estimates almost 2/3 of all rapes are not reported TYPES OF RAPE Acquaintance Rape: o Date Rape – in some sort of relationship o Marital Rape – between married couple; now illegal o Statutory Rape – sex between underage female & a male; in LA sex with someone under the age of 13 is illegal Stranger Rape: o Raped by someone you don’t know Gang Rape: o Raped by more than one person in one incident o Usually causes most harm o Most likely to get reported o About 25% of all rapes o Considered aggravated rape ASSAULT & BATTERY Assault: o Involves no touching o Attempted battery o Threats Battery: o Offensive touching (slapping, hitting, punching) Aggravated Assault – an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury o This type of assault is usually accompanied by the use of a weapon or by other means likely to produce death or great bodily harm ROBBERY Robbery – taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear Armed Robbery: o Conducted with use of weapon (anything external to body you can use as a weapon) Strong-Armed Robbery: o Absence of weapon o Typically have more injuries o Usually committed by less experienced robbers Page 11 of 17 Robbery Rates & Trends o Injuries (about 1/3 cause injury) o Mostly occur in large cities (prime time = 8:00pm-2:00am) o Annual losses estimated at $508 million o About 40% of robberies are strong-armed & 60% are armed robberies o Commission of robbery almost evenly split between blacks & whites o About 80% of robberies are committed by a stranger Professional Robber – not very common; must have exceptional skill; good at planning Opportunist Robber – most common; opportunity presented so they attack; little planning; teens CHAPTER 12: PROPERTY CRIMES PROPERTY CRIME STATISTICS, 2009 Crime # Rate (per Reported 100,000) Burglary 2,199,125 716.3 Larceny- Theft 6,327,230 2,060.9 MVT 794,616 258.5 Arson 58,871 21.3 BURGLARY Burglary – the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft The UCR Program has 3 sub-classifications for burglary: o 1.) Forcible entry o 2.) Unlawful entry where no force is used o 3.) Attempted forcible entry Partners are common Either residential or commercial o 73% are residential 4 requirements to being successful: o 1.) Learn the skills o 2.) Choose trustworthy partners o 3.) Obtain inside information o 4.) Cultivate Fences Aggravated Burglary – the unauthorized entry of a structure when a person is present with the intent to commit a felony or theft LARCENY/THEFT Larceny/Theft – the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another o Difference b/w Robbery & Larceny-Theft is force o Petty Larceny < $200 (misdemeanor) o Grand Larceny > $200 (felony) The average value of property taken during larceny-theft was $864 per offense Thefts of motor vehicle parts, accessories, & contents make up largest portion of reported larcenies (27.3%) Page 12 of 17 ARSON Arson – willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. o “with intent to defraud” = insurance Arsons involving structures (residential, storage, public, etc.) accounted for 44.5% of the total number of arson offenses The average dollar loss due to arson was $17,411 Arsons of industrial/manufacturing structures resulted in the highest average dollar losses (an average of $93,287 per arson) – only accounts for about 1% of all arsons MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT (MVT) MVT – the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle o Same as Larceny just with a vehicle (LA considers it Larceny – no separate crime) In the UCR Program, a Motor Vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle that runs on land surfaces & not on rails Nationwide, nearly $5.2 billion were lost to MVTs in 2009 o The average dollar loss per stolen vehicle was $6,505 About 72% of all motor vehicles reported stolen in 2009 were automobiles High reporting rate for MVT ~ 80% Carjacking – taking a motor vehicle from the driver by force, violence, or intimidation Types Of Auto Thieves: o Joy Riders – teens; steal cars to take out for a spin b/c they can’t legally drive; thrill-seeking o Short-Term Transportation – take car close to where they are going then leaves it o Steal For The Commission Of A Crime – steal car to commit a larger crime (robbing bank or convenience store) so no one can easily identify them o Long-Term Use – change car (paint it, change interior, etc.) o Profit – steal it & sell it to a chop-shop for $ CLEARANCE Clearance – the % of reported crimes that lead to an arrest or are cleared by exceptional means Clearance = (# of arrests ÷ # of crimes committed) x 100 This is how we measure the success of the police Page 13 of 17 Page 14 of 17 CHAPTER 3: VICTIMS & VICTIMIZATION VICTIMOLOGY Victimology – the study of the victim’s role in criminal events Criminologists who focus on crime victims are known as Victimologists TOLL OF VICTIMIZATION ON SOCIETY NCVS reported over 20 million victimization incidents in 2009 (about 78% are property crimes & other 22% are violent crimes) The Crime Event: Page 15 of 17 o Time of Occurrence – most rapes at night & most property crimes during the day o Place of Occurrence – violent crimes happen in (33%) or near (22%) victim’s home & 22% happen at work o Distance From Home – most likely to be victimized at or near your home (58%), only 3% of crimes happen more than 50 miles from your home o Injury & Medical Care o Time Loss From Work – only about 7% of victims lose time from work o Economic Loss o Recovery of Losses – MVT most likely to recover your losses o Weapon Use – about half of all robberies use weapons CRIMES REPORTED TO POLICE Robbery & assault are 2 violent crimes most likely to be reported 85% of all MVTs are reported Some crimes go unreported b/c it was a “personal matter” Most crimes are reported to “prevent against future violence” IMPORTANT VICTIM CHARACTERISTICS Gender o Males have higher rates of victimization than females o Men are more likely to be victims & offenders Age o 15-24 o As you get older, chance of victimization goes down Race o Blacks & whites getting closer in equality so lines are getting closer Social Status o Violent victimization rates & property crime rates are inversely related to household income (inverse = one goes up, the other goes down) o Larger households have higher rate of victimization as well Marital Status o Never-married have higher victimization rates than married o The relationship is influenced by age & lifestyle Repeat Victimization o Repeat victimization is a fairly common occurrence Past crime victims have a higher chance of future victimization Page 16 of 17 Victimized households are most likely to experience it again in the future About 75% of victims of violent crimes are victimized again & nearly 100% of property crime victims are victimized again o Most repeat victimization occurs soon after the previous crime o 3 characteristics that increase potential for victimization Target Vulnerability – either physically or mentally & they feel they can overpower you Target Gratifiability – you have something they want (drugs, shoes, phone, etc.) Target Antagonism – something about you that sets off the offender causes some feeling of anger or jealousy Page 17 of 17 Test 2: Chapters 4,5,6,7,and 9 Chapter 4: Rational Choice Theory The Development of Rational Choice Development of Classical Criminology Punishment has four main objectives: o To prevent all criminal offenses o When it cannot prevent a crime, to convince the offender to commit a less serious crime. o To ensure that a criminal uses no more force than is necessary o To prevent crime as cheaply as possible. Cesare Beccaria Has its roots in the classical school of criminology developed by Cesare Beccaria Rational Hedonism: humans are rational and choose to act certain ways in pursuit of our pleasures/passions Hedonism: seeking of pleasure Criminals do these things to seek reward/pleasure; it’s personal and the blame lies within that person; People become more individualistic Religion has lost its influence Punishment stops people from committing crime 4 Basic Principles: Free will: people can choose to be lawful or criminal Crime is attractive fo