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by: Eryn Dixon

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# PSYC 261 Ch. 5 Notes Week 5 PSYC 261

Eryn Dixon
CSU Chico
GPA 2.74

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These notes will help for the first and final exam.
COURSE
Research Methods in Psychology
PROF.
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
3
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Psychology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eryn Dixon on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 261 at California State University Chico taught by Adelaide Kreamer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology at California State University Chico.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Variables and Measurement in Research Ch 5 Dependent Variables ● Review… ● Dependent variables ○ Variables measured in a research study ■ How they are measured impacts reliability ● Consistency of measurements ● OPerational Definition ○ Definitions of concepts that describe how they are measured or manipulated ■ Dictate HOW the dependent variable is measured Scales of Measurement ● Different types of measures allow different questions to be asked ○ Choice of measurement scale dictates the types of statistical tests used for analysis ● Four Main Measurement Scales: ○ Nominal ○ Ordinal ○ Interval ○ Ratio ● Nominal ○ Categorical responses ○ Not ordered on any continuum ○ No numeric values ■ Qualitative data ○ Ex: Names, Majors, Emotions ● Ordinal ○ Ordered response categories ■ Qualitative data ○ Not equally spaced on a continuum ○ Rank orderings ○ Ex: Not at all anxious/A little anxious/Fairly anxious/Very anxious ○ Ex: 1st place/ 2nd place/ 3rd place ● Interval ○ Numeric response values ■ Quantitative data ○ Equally spaced intervals on continuum ■ Can have qualitative anchors ○ No absolute zero ○ Ex: Likert scale- 1 to 5 scale, Temperature Fahrenheit/Celsius ● Ratio ○ Numeric response values ■ Quantitative data ○ Equally spaced intervals on continuum ○ Absolute zero ■ Zero is the lowest possible value/absence of variable ■ Ratio comparison of values ○ Ex: temperature Kelvin, Age measured in days since birth Validity and Response Scales ● Choice of measurement can impact the study’s accuracy in testing the research hypothesis (validity) ○ More response choices typically lead to more accurate measurement ■ Ex: Ruler with only foot increments vs. ruler with inch increments ● Operational Definition ○ Good operational definition accurately reflects the construct of interest ■ Construct Validity ● HIgh: Measure accurately measures the behavior of interest ○ Appropriate operational definition ● Ex: Low construct validity- Measuring love with goldfish eaten Reliability and Response Scales ● Choice of measurement can impact the reliability of the data collected ○ Reliability of measures tested two main ways: ■ Comparing scores at different times ● Test-retest ■ Comparing responses on different parts of the measure ● Split-half, Cronbach’s Alpha ● Inter-rater/Inter-observer reliability ○ Used when there are multiple raters or coders ■ Typically naturalistic observation Independent Variables ● All studies have at least one dependent variable ● Only experiments have independent variables ○ Manipulated variable ● Three Main Types of INdependent Variable ○ Presence/Absence Variable ■ Two groups: ● Experimental group = Presence, Control group = absence ○ Type Variables ■ Each different type of whatever is being manipulated makes up each level of the IV ● EX: Types of therapy- in person, online, telephone ○ Amount Variables ■ Manipulation of the amount of a factor in each level ● Ex Caffeine- 0oz, 6oz, 10oz Quasi-Independent Variables ● Variable that allows comparison of groups of participants without manipulation ○ Subject variable ■ Ex: Gender, Age, Personality types ● Caution! ○ No random assignment ■ Causal relationship between quasi-independent variable and dependent variable not always clear ● Possible additional factors are causing differences Internal Validity ● Degree to which a study provides causal information about behavior ○ Controls extraneous variables ■ Confounding variables ● Factors that provide possible alternative explanations for the results ● Major sources of bias that lower internal validity: ○ Experimenter bias ○ Testing effects ● Experimenter BIas ○ Researcher treats groups differently based on knowledge of the hypothesis ■ Single blind ● Placebo ■ Double Blind ● Testing effects ○ IN multiple testing sessions early testing experiences can impact later testing ■ Ex: Practice Effects ■ Counter balancing External Validity ● Degree to which a study measures realistic behaviors and results can be generalized beyond the study ● Threats to External Validity: ○ Attrition ■ Reduction in representatives ○ Increased Control ■ Increases artificiality ○ Hawthorne Effect/Observer Effect ■ Alteration of behavior due to presence of observer ○ Demand Characteristics ■ Alteration of behavior based on perceptions of study’s purpose ● Deception

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