REL 1020 Buddhism
REL 1020 Buddhism REL 1020
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by jschric on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REL 1020 at Clemson University taught by Brett Patterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see World Religions in Religion at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Buddhism Buddhism Today • Dominant: Tibet/Sri Lanka/Thailand • Influential: China/Korea/Japan • Varieties across Asia: everything changes/always in flux • United States: Buddhist churches in America (BCA)/Zen centers History • Life of Buddha ○ 583-‐463 BCE ○ Birthplace: Lumbini (near India/Nepal border) ○ Siddhartha Gautma: lived sheltered life in father's palace, married, had child ○ "Four Sights" § Sick Person/Elderly/Corpse/Ascetic Monk (Detachment) § Impermanence ○ "The Great Going Forth" § Left palace and takes up ascetism § Denial of pleasures (suffering) did not give insight § "Middle Way": not pain or pleasure (disconnected) ○ Enlightenment: Becoming the Buddha § Bodh Gaya/sitting under Bodhi tree (meditation) § After temptations: Nirvana (no longer subject to suffering) § Buddha: one who wakes up from sleep of ignorance that binds people ○ Bodhisattvas § Previous reincarnations that let to Sid. Samsare and reincarnation: previous lives § § Prep of bod: generosity/courage/sacrifice § Ex: □ Buck (king of deer) sacrificed himself for a pregnant Doe § Other stories leading up to Sid's renunciation/enlightenment ○ Beginning of Buddhist Community § Sermon in the Deer Park: first turning of wheel of dharma § Four noble truths/first monks § Samgha: community/church-‐monks/nuns (in monestary)/laity □ Buck (king of deer) sacrificed himself for a pregnant Doe § Other stories leading up to Sid's renunciation/enlightenment ○ Beginning of Buddhist Community § Sermon in the Deer Park: first turning of wheel of dharma § Four noble truths/first monks § Samgha: community/church-‐monks/nuns (in monestary)/laity (support monks/nuns, not in monestary) ○ Death § 80 y/o after 45 years teaching § Fatal meal on way to Kusinara/near Varanasi § Farewell to monks: cremation/shrine § Parinirvana: follow Buddha's teachings Buddhist Councils • First Council (483 BCE): Rajagriha, India ○ Created a Buddhist canon to preserve teachings • Second Council (383 BCE) ○ Preserved vows and banned selling services (spiritual insights) • King Mahapadma's Council (360 BCE) ○ Dharma not bound by canon • Ashoka and the Third Council (247 BCE) ○ Defined "authentic" view as Theravada form Theravada Buddhism • Conservative/Sid. Life based • "Way of the Elders" (Sanskrit) aka Hinyana (lesser vehicle) • Predominant in Sri Lanka/Thailand/Cambodia/Laos/Burma • Emphasizes individuals effort in seeking nirvana (end to suffering) • Buddha-‐-‐> beyond reach for our aid • Emphasizes monasticism and the arhat (those monastics who have achieved nirvana) • Texts ○ Tripitaka (Pali Can)-‐>400 years after SA death/500 monks § Vinaya Pitaka (monastic rules) § Sutra Pitaka (teachings of Buddha/morals) § Abhidharma Pitaka (higher teachings) Mahayana Buddhism • Bhakti hinduism/devotion to gods • "Great(er) vehicle" • Perdominant form in East Asia/SE Asia, largest group • Elaboration of Dharma • Buddha-‐-‐>expression of the ultimate reality • Complex cosmoloy: 3 levels • Bodhisattvas (expressions of SA's divinity) "enlightenment being" ○ ○ Originally: used to refer to buddha in the lives he lived prior to his • Elaboration of Dharma • Buddha-‐-‐>expression of the ultimate reality • Complex cosmoloy: 3 levels • Bodhisattvas (expressions of SA's divinity) ○ "enlightenment being" ○ Originally: used to refer to buddha in the lives he lived prior to his enlightenment ○ Later: those who have taken BH vows to assist others in attaining enlightenment § Buddha hanging around in some form to help people still living ○ Most popular: Avalokiteshava: BH of compassion • Texts ○ Built on Tripitaka (states of meditation/qualities of BH) § Perfection of Wisdom Sutra § Diamond Sutra § Lotus Sutra: Buddha as eternal entity living in Samsara to benefit others § Lankavatara Sutras § Pure Land Sutras: heaven like reincarnation • Two Schools ○ Pure Land Amitabha Buddha (Amito/Amida) § § The pure land § Grace ○ Zen (chan): Sage Bodhidharma § Meditation-‐mind over devotion § Practice emphasized over doctrine § Most self reliant of traditions Vajrayana Buddhism • "Diamond Vehicle"/"Thunderbolt Vehicle" ○ Shortcut to Nirvana • Tibet/Nepal/Bhutan/Mongolia • Influenced by Mahayana -‐-‐> dieties ○ "Tantric Texts": material world shows divine energy and practitioners seek to channel it to break ego • Immerse self in life's pleasures • Lamas (spiritual teachers) • Texts ○ Tripitaka/Buddhist tantras/Hidden texts Buddhism in India • Theravada/Mahayana/Vajrayan-‐ a-‐>originated in India • Gupta Dynasty (320 -‐550 CE): Mahayana • Fall of gupta/resurgance of hinduism/Muslim invasions ○ End of Buddhism in Indi-‐1200 CE) Buddhism in India • Theravada/Mahayana/Vajrayan-‐ a-‐>originated in India • Gupta Dynasty (320 -‐550 CE): Mahayana • Fall of gupta/resurgance of hinduism/Muslim invasions ○ End of Buddhism in Indi-‐1200 CE) Buddhism beyond India • Southern Transmission: Sri Lanka/Burma/Thailand/Laos/Cambodia/Indonesia • North: Central Asia • East Asia: China/Korea/Japan/Tibet • West: Europe/Americas ○ Attempt to make Buddhism more scientific/psychological Buddha's Teachings: points of orientation • No "essence"-‐-‐>therefore "points of orientation" • Dharma ○ Broadly: nature and nature's laws ○ Narrowly: the body of Buddha's teachings • Interdependent Origination ○ Coming into existence (origin) of all things depends on other things ○ No thing has an identity or existence independent of other things § Car: no such thing, made from metal/rubber etc • Three marks of existence Impermanence/Suffering/No -‐Self (always changing) ○ • Four Noble Truths (~indian physician diagnosing disease) 1. Suffering is inherent in life 2. Cause of suffering is desire § 3 poisons: attachment/aversion/ignorance 3. There is a way to put an end to desire and suffering § Nirvana (blowing out): cessation 4. The way is the Noble Eightfold Path • Noble Eightfold Path ○ Eradicating 3 poisons/desire to reach Nirvana § Right View: see life as is Right Intention: commitment § § Right Speech: kind words § Right Action: moral code § Right Livelihood: job benefits others § Right Effort: cultivate values § Right Mindfulness: focus § Right Concentration: 4 stages to non attachment 1. Wisdom: View/Intention □ Fill mind with teaching of no-‐self to unravel the chain of reincarnation 2. Moral Conduct: Speech/Action/Livelihood □ No killing/stealing/lying/abusing sex/intoxicants § Right Concentration: 4 stages to non attachment 1. Wisdom: View/Intention □ Fill mind with teaching of no-‐self to unravel the chain of reincarnation 2. Moral Conduct: Speech/Action/Livelihood □ No killing/stealing/lying/abusing sex/intoxicants 3. Concentration: Effort/Mindfulness/Concentration □ Meditation/mental discipline to clear out the mind of negative tendencies • Karma and Rebirth ○ Nothing concrete ○ Ones karma brings a new life, new combination of 5 Skandhas § Body/perception/feelings/thought/innate tendencies ○ Analogy of lighting another candle: sharing energy • Nirvana ○ Samsara: cycle of reincarnation and this life of suffering ○ The "extinguishing" of desire/suffering ○ Bliss/exceeds description (must be experienced)/compassion • Gods? ○ Buddha said very little -‐-‐>who knew nothing about the end of suffering (Transtheistic view) Who is a Buddhist? • Buddhists ○ Recite the Three Refuges § "I take refuge in Buddha/Dharma/Sangha" ○ Follow the 5 Precepts ○ Like a "science": meditation to guide life ○ Ethical Stance: No killing/stealing/lying/abusing sex/taking intoxicants § Situational ethics: no greed/hatred/illusion ○ Does not require atheistic perspective (no gods) but some mix it in Meditation: cultivating the mind • Monastics (meditate) vs Laity (support) ○ Ordination: novice (7y/o)/adult (zen) • Shamatha: focus to achieve stability • Vipassana: to gain insight into patterns of thought Meditation • Walking Meditation: invest in movement/not destination • Visualization of buddhas/bodhisattvas Deity Yoga (mantra recitation) ○ ○ Mandalas (circular cosmological art) Theravada: Sri Lanka/Thailand/Cambodia/Laos/Burma Mahayana: E/SE Asia/Guptas Vajrayana: Tibet/Nepal/Bhutan/Mongolia ○ Deity Yoga (mantra recitation) ○ Mandalas (circular cosmological art) Theravada: Sri Lanka/Thailand/Cambodia/Laos/Burma Mahayana: E/SE Asia/Guptas Vajrayana: Tibet/Nepal/Bhutan/Mongolia
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