BSCI201: Anatomy &Physiology Chapter 3 Notes- Part 3
BSCI201: Anatomy &Physiology Chapter 3 Notes- Part 3 BSCI201
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by mehrnazighani Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 3 Notes- Part 3 by Mehrnaz Ighani . Cytoplasm: all cellular material that’s located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus Composed of: 1. Cytosol: gel-like solution made up of water and soluble molecules such as proteins, salts, and sugars 2. Inclusions: insoluble molecules such as glycogen granules, pigments, vacuoles, and crystals 3. Organelles: metabolic machinery structures of cell: either membranous or non-membranous . Membranous organelles: mitochondria, ER, golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, and lysosomes . Non-membranous organelles: ribosomes, cytoskeleton, and centrioles . Mitochondria (power plant): (Fig. 3.15) Produce the most ATP via aerobic cellular respiration Double membraned, inner membrane called cristae has many folds Cristae are embedded with membrane proteins that play a role in cellular respiration Has their own DNA, RNA, and ribosomes Resemble bacteria b/c they’re capable of the same type of cell division called fission . Ribosomes: Non-membranous organelles that are site of protein synthesis Made up of protein and rRNA 2 switchable forms: 1. Free ribosomes: free floating, site of synthesis of soluble proteins that function in cytosol or other organelles 2. Membrane bound ribosomes: attached to ER, site of synthesis of proteins to be incorporated into membranes or lysosomes or exported from cell . ER: (Fig. 3.16) Consists of series of parallel, interconnected cisterns Cisterns: flattened membranous tubes that enclose fluid-filled interiors Continuous with outer nuclear membrane 2 varieties: 1. Rough ER 2. Smooth ER Rough ER: Studded with attached ribosomes which is the site of synthesis of proteins that’ll be secreted from cell and of many plasma membrane proteins Proteins enter cisterns as they’re synthesized and modified as they wind through fluid-filled tubes Final protein is enclosed in vesicle and sent to golgi apparatus for further processing Smooth ER: Network of looped tubules continuous with rough ER Enzymes found in its plasma membrane function in: 1. Lipid metabolism, cholesterol and lipid based hormone synthesis 2. Absorption, synthesis, and transport of fats 3. Detoxification of certain chemicals such as pesticides 4. Converting of glycogen to free glucose 5. Storage and release of Calcium . Golgi apparatus: Stacked and flattened membranous cistern sacs Modifies, concentrates, and packages proteins and lipids received from rough ER 3 steps involved: (Fig. 3.17) 1. Transport vesicles from ER fuse with cis (inner) face of golgi 2. Proteins or lipids taken inside are further modified, sorted, and tagged 3. Golgi is “traffic director”, controlling which of 3 pathways final products will take as new transport vesicles pinch off trans (outer) face Depending on its content, final transport vesicles can take one of 3 pathways: (Fig. 3.18) 1. Secretory vesicles containing proteins to be used outside of cell fuse with plasma membrane and exocytosis contents 2. Vesicles containing lipids or transmembrane proteins fuse with plasma membrane or organelle membrane, inserting contents directly into destination membrane 3. Lysosomes containing digestive enzymes remain in cell, holding contents in vesicle until needed . Peroxisomes: Membranous sacs containing detoxifying substances that neutralize toxins . Free radicals: toxic and reactive molecules that are natural by products of cellular metabolism . 2 main detoxifiers: 1. Oxidase: uses oxygen to convert toxins to hydrogen peroxide 2. Catalase: uses hydrogen peroxide to convert it to water . Lysosomes: (Fig. 3.19) Spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes Digest ingested bacteria, virus, and toxins Degrade nonfunctional organelles Break down and release of glycogen and calcium from bone Intracellular release in injured cells causes cells to digest themselves (autolysis) . Endomembrane system: (Fig. 3.20) Consists of membranous organelles as well as the nuclear and plasma membranes These membranes and organelles work together to degrade harmful subs. and export biological molecules . Cytoskeleton: Elaborate network of rods that run throughout cytosol Different proteins link rods to other cell structures 3 types: 1. Microfilaments 2. Intermediate filaments 3. Microtubules . Microfilaments: (Fig. 3.21) o Thinnest of all cytoskeletal elements that are made up of the protein actin o Each cell has a unique arrangement of strands o Strengthens cell surface and helps to resist compression o Some are involved in cell motility or endocytosis and exocytosis . Intermediate filaments: (Fig. 3.21b) o Tough, insoluble, protein fibers that help cell resist pulling forces o Composed of tetramer fibrils twisted together resulting in one strong fiber . Microtubules: (Fig. 3.21c) o Largest of all cytoskeletal elements; consist of hollow tubes composed of subunits called tubulins o Determine overall shape of cell and distribution of organelles o Many subs. are moved throughout cell by motor proteins which use microtubules as tracks . Centrosome and centrioles: (Fig. 3.22a,b) Centrosome is a microtubule organizing center, consisting of a granular matrix and centrioles Centrioles: a pair of microtubular organelles that lie at right angles to each other Centrioles form the basis of cilia and flagella . Cellular extensions: some cells have structures extending from the cell surface Cilia and flagella aid in movement of the cell or of the materials across the surface of the cell Microvilli: finger like projections that extend from the surface of the cell to increase surface area . Nucleus: (Fig. 3.26a) Largest organelle that contains genetic info for synthesis of all cellular proteins Most cells are uninucleate but skeletal muscle and some liver cells are multinucleate 3 structures: 1. Chromatin 2. Nuclear envelope 3. Nucleolus . Nuclear envelope: (Fig. 3.26b) Double membrane barrier that encloses the nucleoplasm Nuclear pores allow subs. to pass into and out of nucleus; they’re guarded by the nuclear pore complex which regulates transport of specific large molecules . Nucleolus: Dark staining spherical bodies within the nucleus that are involved in rRNA synthesis and ribosome subunit assembly Associated with nuclear organizer regions that contain the DNA that codes for rRNA . Chromatin (Fig. 3.27b) Composed of RNA, histone proteins, and DNA Arranged in units called nucleosomes which consist of DNA wrapped around histone proteins Chromosomes are condensed proteins Chemical alterations of histones have an effect on DNA and so can help regulate gene expression Works Cited Lindsey, Jerri K., Katja Hoehn, and Elaine Nicpon Marieb. Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9th Edition Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2013. Print.
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