Week 2-4 lecture and book notes
Week 2-4 lecture and book notes BIBL 101
Popular in Jesus: His Life and Teachings
Popular in Bible New Testament
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HST 206 -03
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annika Verburg on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIBL 101 at Abilene Christian University taught by Cliff Barbarick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Jesus: His Life and Teachings in Bible New Testament at Abilene Christian University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Book Chapter 1 All books in the new testament were written by Roman Christians. To understand the New Testament, we really need to know about three different worlds: o Christian World o Jewish World o Roman World Second Temple Period o The Persian Period o Synagogues emerged as significant sites for worshipping and teaching o Ruled by high priests with minimal inference from the Persian kings o The Hellenistic Period o A reign of terror o Antiochus IV Epiphanes sought to exterminate the Jewish religion by inflicting horrible atrocities upon anyone practicing the faith o The Hasmonean Period o Jewish rebels who led a successful revolt against Antiochus Epiphanes (Maccabees) established a Jewish state ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty (rulers of the independent state) o Jewish sects (Pharisees and Sadducees) emerged at this time o The Roman period o Roman conquest o Palestine would remain under Roman rule to the end of the Second Temple Period People we meet in the New testament world or Palestine o Pharisees o Emphasized faith to the Torah o Assigned authoritative status to an oral body of material known as “the tradition of the elders” (Mishnah) o Their interpretations of the law seem to have been driven by a conviction that all of God’s people should live with the utmost sanctity o Were synagogue leaders and some were referred to as “rabbi” o Jesus was referred to as “rabbi” and he probably had more in common with the Pharisees than with any other Jewish group of his day o Apostle Paul was raised as a Pharisee and continued to regard himself as a Pharisee after becoming a missionary for Christ. (The Pharisees were a sect that had arisen during the Intertestamental Period in response to growing secularization in Israel. They were most zealous for the law of God. Paul himself acknowledged that he was great among the Pharisees in his zeal for the group’s goals, so much so that he hated any departure from the Pharisaical code. When he became aware of the group called the Way, the followers of Jesus of Nazareth, he unleashed his fury against them.) o Sadducees o Most powerful Jewish group o Figure less prominently because they appear to have been centered in Jerusalem and Jesus spends most of his time in Galilee o Seem to have controlled the temple system o Pharisees and Sadducees were divided over a number of theological and political issues o Essenes o lived in private community o held the library of the Dead Sea Scrolls o advocated rigorous paths to holiness o Never mentioned in the New Testament o Zealots o Radical anti-Roman Jews who advocated armed rebellion against the Roman forces o Included the Sicarii, knife-wielding assassins who mingled in crowds and stabbed Jews o Responsible for leading the Jews into a disastrous war with Rome o Probably not mentioned in the New Testament (except Jesus’ disciple “Simon the Zealot” but that could mean zealous) o May not have appeared until a few years after Jesus o Herodians o Political coalition of Jews who supported the family and dynasty of Herod o Mentioned as collaborating with Pharisees to banish and destroy him o Samaritans o Lived primarily in Samaria (between Judea and Galilee) o Claimed they were the true Israel o Had their own temple on Mount Gerizim and claimed it was the original sanctuary o Only accepted the Pentateuch (first five books of the bible) o Claimed the Jews had falsified text and that their version of the Pentateuch o Both Jewish and Samaritan religious leaders taught that is was wrong to have any contact with the opposite group o Many violent encounters were documented between the two groups o Gentiles o Jesus seemed to avoid large urban areas where most of the Gentiles lived o Pharisees ranged from being intolerant or just tolerant of them o Paul who devoted the latter part of his life bringing them to Jesus doesn’t even seem to think highly of them o Anti-Semitism was high with Gentiles but a good number of them were attracted to the Jewish religion o “God-fearers” were Gentiles who embraced the Jewish theology, worship, and morality but did not follow ritual purity laws Jesus was born during Caesar Augustus’ ruling and conducted his ministry during the rule of Tiberius. Nero violently persecuted Christians, murdering them in sadistic ways that generally repulsed the Roman public. Roman authorities o Herod the Great o First appointed by Marc Antony but later confirmed in that position by Caesar Augustus Proves that he was adept at political maneuvering (switching sides at the right time) o Considered “half-Jew” but viewed as a foreigner by Jews o Became the blunt of a Roman proverb “Better to be a pig than a son in the house of Herod” The romans found it humorous that he did not eat pork but killed 3 of his children and his Jewish wife when he suspected them of plotting against him o Known to Christians for the biblical story in which he confronts the magi and orders a massacre of babies in Bethlehem o Herod Antipas o Ruled Pera and Galilee as a tetrarch, not a king o Responsible for less territory than Herod o John the Baptist criticized Antipas for marrying his niece, Herodias, who was already married to a different uncle. Antipas had John arrested and later beheaded at Herodias’s request. o He examined Jesus briefly when he was arrested in Jerusalem o Pontius Pilate o Ruled Judea as a governor representing Caesar o Speculation that he was a cruel ruler who hated Jews o He sought to have imperial banners put up but the Jews protested so he became embarrassed and took them down o He then used temple funds to fund an aqueduct and that provoked protesters. This time he sent soldiers disguised as civilians who would beat and kill people at random o He was the governor who sentenced Jesus to be crucified o Herod Agrippa I o ruled Galilee then became king over all Palestine o politically popular and successful ruler, but he persecuted the fledgling Christian movement in Jerusalem (putting James to death and imprisoning Peter) The extent of the Roman empire brought an unprecedented unity to the world (referred to as Pax Romana) o travel and communication was made easier leading to the rapid spread of Christianity o in Palestine, taxes were very high o in the new testament era between ¼ to 1/3 of all people in the roman empire were slaves o the people knew they were not free (this was affront to their honor) By the start of the second century almost all of the books of the New testament had been written. Hellenism refers broadly to the influence of Greek culture. o Some instances it was embraced (i.e. reclining while eating/ surgical operations to look uncircumcised) o in others it was resisted denouncing seemingly innocent practices as instances of pagan infection o Hebrew ceased to be the primary language of the Jewish people o Diasapora (Jews living outside of traditional homelands) o The common language for Jesus and other Palestinian Jews was Aramaic o The Jewish scriptures had been translated into Greek. This Greek translation of the Jewish Bible is called the “Septuagint” (meaning seventy) o Most New Testament authors quote from the Septuagint rather than from the Hebrew Bible when they make reference to something that is said in scripture o Contained 15 additional books written in Greek in the years after the writing of the Hebrew scripture (what Christians generally call the “Old testament” o These extra books are often called the “apocrypha” Jewish religion modification through religious syncretism o Wisdom theology o focused on common sense: truth that is gained through general insight into life and the human condition o evident in the teachings of Jesus and in the writings of some of his followers o Dualism o The tendency to separate phenome into sharply opposed categories with little room for anything in between (good vs. evil) o Apocalypticism o Combined a radical dualistic outlook with a deterministic view of history (good vs. evil with proceeding to a divine plan) o Usually far pessimistic or far optimistic Epicureanism: a philosophical system that emphasized free will, questioned fate, and encouraged the attainment of true pleasure through avoidance of anxiety, concentration on the present and enjoyment of all things in moderation Stoicism: A philosophical system that emphasized the attainment of virtue through acceptance of fate, based on the notion that all things are predetermined and that there is logic to all that transpires in the universe Cynicism: a philosophical system that emphasized radical authenticity, repudiation of shame, simplicity of lifestyle, and a desire to possess only what is obtained naturally and freely Mystery Religions: A variety of popular- though secretive- cults that were organized around gods and goddesses from various mythologies. Although diggerent in content, these cults involved secret rites related to concerns for fertility. The mystery religions allowed the devotees to bond with the good or goddess in this life to establish a connection that would continue in the world beyond death. Animism o Belief in the existence of spirits, good and bad, and in the possibility that these spirits could possess people and animals. (Storms at sea caused by water spirits) Augury o Interest in knowing the future (oracles and observation of stars) Supernaturalism o “divine man” could perform supernatural events Gnosticism: a religious movement of perspective that appealed to many Christians and became the bane of many prominent church leaders (took many forms and expressions) Wealth and Poverty o about 3% of the population was extremely rich and 90% were extremely poor o the poor lived off the land (agriculture) o attitudes towards wealth and poverty were a significant part of the social worlds Purity and Defilement o clean vs. unclean o eating pork or lobster was unclean o Jerusalem, the temple, and the Sabbath was holy o Contact with a corpse or bodily fluid was unclean o Purity codes were taken seriously Patronage and Loyalty o Regarding benefaction and obligation o Patron-client relationship (trust and faith) o God to us Honor and Shame o Honor: the status that one has eyes of those whose opinions one considers to be significant o Christ did not seek honor or fame or glory but bore the shame of the cross Class notes day 2 Second Temple Judaism The sequence of rule in Palestine o Babylonia conquers Judea (597 BCE) o Persians (539 BCE) o King Cyrus (called a ‘Messiah’ in Isaiah 44:28- 45:4) allows the Jews to return in Judea o New temple dedicated in 515 BCE BCE = Before Common Era o Alexander the Great (332 BCE) o Babylonia coquers Judea (597 BCE) o Persians (539 BCE) o Alexander the Great (334 BCE) o Ptolemies (323 BCE) o Seleucides (198 BCE) Chapter 2 The Gospels: report on the life, ministry, death, etc. of Jesus. Named after the four people who have been identified as the author Book of Acts: “part two of Luke” separated from the gospel because it reports the events after the Gospels Letters from Paul to churches: in order from length. Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians. Letters from Paul to individuals: 1 timothy, 2 timothy, Titus, Philemon. Order of length. Letters to Hebrews: we don’t know who sent or received these. Letters by other people: James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude. Named for the people who have been traditionally identified as their authors. The book of revelation: class of its own. The “apocalypse of john” New testament books o not ordered chronologically Canon: rule or standard o it is used by religious groups to refer to a list of books that are officially accepted as scripture o these books were the ones copied and shared between churches and people The New Testament is not just a collection of early Christian writings; rather, it is a selection of those writings. Marcion o started a following which rejected the Jewish part of the religion o wanted it to be purely Gentile religion Christians in the second century o produced writings and attributing them to the people who belonged in the apostolic circle How Scholars study the New Testament o text criticism o archaeology o sociological criticism o cultural anthropology o historical criticism o source criticism o form criticism o redaction criticism o narrative criticism o rhetorical criticism o reader-response criticism o ideological criticisms o deconstruction Exegesis and hermeneutics o exegesis: refers to scholarly study of the Bible with an emphasis on the actual explication of texts o hermeneutics: refers broadly to philosophical reflection on the process of interpretation Chapter 3 Jesus in the New Testament o the pre-Easter Jesus (earthly) o the post-Easter Jesus (Godly) Earthly figure of Jesus o chooses 12 disciples to constitute and inner circle of followers patterned after the 12 tribes of Israel o itinerant ministry- Jesus preaches on the road, taking his messages to different groups of people o rural ministry- the focus of his ministry is villages and market towns o Jewish ministry-the ministry of Jesus is directed primarily to Jews and is conducted in terms meaningful to Jewish people Jesus often uses the phrase “kingdom of God” to describe the sphere of God’s influence and power. He often refers to himself as “the Son of Man” He is especially fond of parables. He performs “prophetic acts” (unconventional public displays intended to make a particular point) (ex: dining with tax collectors, riding into Jerusalem on a donkey). His healings and exorcisms also become prophetic acts. “nature miracles” o The Matthean Jesus insists that all of the commandments of the law will remain valid until the end of time. o The Markan Jesus is unable to work miracles for those who lack faith. o The Lukan Jesus promises that God will give the Holy spirit to those who ask o The Johannine Jesus often uses metaphors to describe himself Class Notes day 3 The Maccabean Revolt o 167 BCE: Antiochus IV Epiphanes profanes the Temple o 164 BCE: Judas Maccabeus rededicates the Temple (Hanukkah) o 142 BCE: Hasmoneans granted independence by the Seleucids o “Hasmonean Dynasty” lasts around 80 years Roman Rule of Palestine o 63 BCE: Pompey uses internal strife as an excuse to conquer Palestine for Rome o 37 BCE: Herod (the Great) appointed King of the Jews o 6-4 BCE: Jesus is born o 4 BCE: Herod’s “kingdom” is divided among his heirs: o Herod Antipas: Galilee & Perea o Phillip” Decapolis & areas NE of the sea of Galilee o Archelaus: Judea, Samaria, and Indumea Pontius Pilate: procurator (26-36 CE) Choose one person (either historical or fictional) who reminds you of Jesus and write a paragraph explaining your choice. I chose Simon from the Lord of the Flies. Simon was a representative of Christ on this island because he was different from most of the boys on the island. Simon was also reawakened after a ‘temporary death’ and he comes out of that with a new mission to tell the boys. The boys ended up “sacrificing” him at the end, which signified Jesus’ death on the cross. He died with a manner associated with his ideals. Simon was sensitive to the feelings and emotions of other people. The Historian’s Jesus o Sources o Archeological and literary o “multiple attestation” is a common employed criterion o Paul’s letters o 1 Cor 15 affirms the core: death, burial, and resurrection o The canonical Gospels o Matthew, Mark, Luke and John Extra-biblical sources o Pagan o Suetenius mentions “Chrestus” in his history of Emperor Claudius’ rule o Tacitus describes Nero’s attempt to blame Christians for a fire that swept through Rome o Jewish o Josephus mentions Jesus in the Jewish Antiquities o Christian o Apocryphal gospels Nag Hammadi library Later embellishments of the canonical gospels Assessing the sources o Using the criterion of “multiple attestation,” what can we know? o Not at lot o What other criteria might help? o Coherence (with the core) o Dissonance (with Judaism and early Christianity) Jesus’ Religious Home o Political stance o Little political clout o Sphere of influence: o Connected to the synagogues o Purity concerns o Emphasized individual, personal religious practice (tithing, Sabbath, dietary regulations, etc.) o Developed an “oral Law to build a hedge around the written Torah o In the NT, they are often linked with the scribes (e.g. Mt 23) Saduccees o Political stance: o Power players o They were the educated, wealthy members of the upper class o Sphere of influence o Connected to temple cult o Largely controlled the Sanhedrin o Purity concerns: o Purity achieved through maintenance of temple cult o Rejected the oral law of the Pharisees o Denied the existence of the afterlife and resurrection Chapter 6 Book of Mark Briefest gospel No important stories (miracles) Journey of Jesus Tyre: Jesus heals a woman’s daughter wile in the “vicinity of Tyre” Caesarea Phillpi: Peter confesses Jesus as the Messiah near Caesarea Phillpi (Peter confesses that Jesus is the Messiah at Caesarea Phillpi) Capernaum: Jesus drives out a demon and performs other miracles in Capernaum Galilee: Much of Jesus’ itinerant ministry in Mark takes place in and around Galilee and the Sea of Galilee Sea of Galilee: Jesus calls the disciples “beside the Sea of Galilee” Nazareth: Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee Decapolis: Jesus heals a deaf man in the region of the Decapolis Jordan River/ wilderness: After Jesus was baptized in the Jordan, the spirit sent him into the wilderness Jericho: Jesus heals Bartimaeus in Jericho Jerusalem: Jesus enters Jerusalem on a donkey, also where the Passion occurs Judea: Jesus teaches on divorce in the region of Judea Historical background First gospel written Papias (a Christian leader) identifies Mark as “Peter’s interpreter” writing his gospel on Peter’s remembrances (Papias also wrote that Mark had not been a follower of Jesus but one of Peter) Written around 65-73- his writings are concerned with offering comfort, courage, and counsel to Christians suffering from the violent persecution of Nero. What is Distinctive about the Gospel of Mark? Written with urgency Embedded with a sense of mystery Major Themes in the Gospel of Mark Most readers find the humanity of Jesus to be displayed with particular clarity in Mark’s narrative He wants to keep the focus from beginning to end on the story of Jesus’ death on a cross “messianic secret” Jesus tells people not to talk about his miracles or his glorious transfiguration because those elements of his biography need to be understood in context and the proper context only comes after Jesus dies on the cross. What is holy now has the power to transform what is unclean He wants to offer a narrative portrayal of Paul’s theology of election and justification Day 4-notes Essenes Discovery of the dead sea scrolls Political Stance: o Outcasts (self-imposed) Sphere of influence: o Connected to Qumran Purity Concerns: o Believed the Temple has been corrupted o Established a community to rigorously maintain Mosaic Law Held an apocalyptic worldview Zealots Political Stance: o Rebels Affirmed Israel’s right to the “promised land” Resisted occupational forces with violence o Sicarli: “daggerman” The Gospel of Mark Basic Information o Date: Most likely between 65-73 CE o Author and Audience: nd Traditional attribution (Papias, 2 Cent.): Mark, the follower of Peter, identified with the John Mark of Acts Author and audience revealed in the text: Greek speakers Non Palestinians? Non-Jews? Those who have suffered Location: Traditionally Rome, where Christians had been persecuted by Nero To form of persecution o The specific occasion under Nero: Tacitus writes: o The clues provided in Mark 13 Handed over to councils Beaten in synagogues Trials before Roman magistrates Family betrayal Titles are Important o The “title” of Mark’s narrative applies important titles to Jesus Christ Son of God Hearing Mark Chapter 2 Community First Journey o Stilling the Storm The sea of galilee o If there is an unanswered question the narrator is directing that question at the reader. o Casting out Demons In the country of Gerasenes Legion, is the demon. (Legion is the name of the Roman army patrolling Palestine) Jesus sends the demon into a herd of pigs. The pigs rush and drown in the sea. o Healing a Women and a Girl Jarius, a synagogue leader, daughter is going to die. The daughter dies and Jesus goes and tells her “Little girl, get up”. The women has been hemorrhaging for 12 years, she trusts that if she just touches Jesus’ cloak she will be healed. Jesus called her “daughter” which may be as big of a part of the story has the faith because she was probably considered unclean. o Jesus in his hometown The people know his power isn’t coming from him. They have no trust or faith in him. o Sending out the Twelve They cast out many demons, anoint with oil many who were sick o Death of John Herod orders John’s (the Baptist) head on a platter but Herodias (Herod’s stepdaughter) asks for it John’s disiciples come and take his body and lay it in a tomb. o Return of the Twelve ABA John preached and was killed Jesus preached and was rejected The disciples and preach and… o Feeding the Five Thousand The crowd follows Jesus to the wilderness (a deserted place) and he preaches to them because he knows that are like sheep without a shepherd He tells the disciples to feed the people with five loaves and two fishes Everyone eats and they are satisfied They have 12 baskets of food left and five thousand people were fed in the wilderness Second Journey o Walking on the sea The disciples don’t recognize Jesus Allusions to exodus o Healing Many Whoever touches Jesus is healed o Challenging Tradition The Pharisees see the disciples eating with unwashed hands. Purity Psychology Contact o Contamination is caused by contact or physical proximity Dose insensitivity: o Microscopic amounts of pollutant can contaminate Permanence: o Once something is contaminated, nothing can purify it again Negativity Dominance: o Pollutants contaminate pure objects not the other way around The Woman and the Girl o 5:21-43 is the second example of a Markan intercalation o Connections: Healing, faith, 12, womanhood, fear, desperation, impurity Jesus reverses the negativity dominance Later, Jesus challenges the Pharisees’ maintenance of the purity code Immediately after, Jesus himself is challenged regarding boundaries Crossing Boundaries Jesus miraculously feeds Jews o Jesus heals sick Jews Jesus redefines the cause of impurity o Jesus heals sick Gentiles Jesus miraculously feeds Gentiles Jesus’s new community and his purification of Israel are leading to surprising results Fear or Faith? Cause for Fear: o Tossing on the seas of chaos o On the path to death Cause for Faith: o Jesus can provide for his own A test: A retake: “On the Way” to Jerusalem Mark 8:22-10:52 The healing of the blind man in Bethsaida (8:22-26) o First passion prediction (8:27-31) Response that reveals misunderstanding (8:32-33) Reiteration of the meaning of Jesus’ Messiahship and its implications for the community of his disciples (8:34-9:1) o Second Passion prediction (9:30-31) Misunderstanding (9:32-34) Reiteration (9:35-37) o Third Passion prediction (10:32-34) Misunderstanding (10:35-41) Reiteration (10:42-45) The healing of Bartimaeus in Jericho (10:46-52) Will the disciples understand? Jesus loves the little children (9:33-37) Attributes of children: small, annoying, loud, innocent, happy In the ancient world, children were often regarded as powerless non- persons at the bottom of the social order o The one who welcomes such person, welcomes God himself The sequel (10:13-16) o Mark includes a second story involving Jesus and children. BECAUSE OF CHILDREN’S POWERLESSNESS CHILDREN COULD FREELY EMBRACE THE ARRIVAL OF GOD’S REIGN BECAUSE THEY HAD NOTHING TO LOSE
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