Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes HIST 1311
Popular in U.S HISTORY TO 1865
Popular in History
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leighton Tidwell on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Abel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see U.S HISTORY TO 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
8/29/16 America Before Europeans (40,000 BC – 1492 AD) Story of people of America begins in the last ice age Last 30,000 years Beringia Area between Russia & Alaska are connected by land bridge known as Bering Straight Makes immigration possible Not a quick process By the end, there are millions population North & South America What do we call these people? o They are racially identical o Dark o “Indians” (east Asians) Ice age ends & people are cut of o They refer to themselves as “the people” o The societies evolve along tribal lines Tribal Politics A few elders (experience, no energy) Children (age of parents) have both Generation next, no experience but energy Group of related people less related than family ( clan ) Family doesn’t have a concrete definition o Can’t define it but know when you see it Tribes are families, constantly move and change Power Tribes pick war leaders during war They don’t need leaders Empires OLmac Miya Inca Aztec These look like European States and have city like qualities. *Miya invented the number 0. Every religion has a mountain (for worshipping God). Lacking one thing o It’s built from stone o No European cultures moved from stone age o The resources do exist o Why? Vikings st 1 contact between Europeans and Indians was in 1000 by ‘vikings’. People who live in Scandinavia etc... Attack boats Sailed to NA Greenland is the farthest eastern point in NA Vikings stopped raiding in 1000 when European made them Christian Leif Ericson (c970 – c1020) Trouble maker Sails further west of Greenland Created Vinland in L’anse Aux Meadows in New World (in Canada) For at least 50 years Vikings tried to settle America It was abandoned (1050) o Guess that people there (barbarians) were decent fighters & Vikings just left. o No permanent impact Ferdinand & Isabella (1474 – 1504 King & Queen of Spain) Up till, new Spain was Muslim Ray Conquista, last Muslim ruler is driven out King & Queen marry & unite Spain Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) All math is wrong Circumference of earth is smaller than thought so he was going to sail it Everyone knew he was wrong Nina, (other ships) Until he died he thought he landed in India He makes three other voyages to establish a Spanish foothold in New World o Key Port: Hispaniola Other countries join o Large Scale Colonization Second Euro Contact Columbus’s Landing 1892 Hernan Cortes & Francisco Pizarro Stumbled on Empires when they were weak Conquistadors Aztecs taken down in Mexico by Cortes o Aztecs sacrificed people due to religion o La Maniche Tells tribes to overthrow Aztecs Mexican Civil War Pizzaro shows up during Inca civil war o Conquers each quadrant of separated Inca o 8000 elite vs. 160 Spanish Spanish win because of cannons o Spanish got lucky Spain is POOR Columbian Exchange Contact between cultures Indian Outcomes o Die o Resist o Assimilate Exchange between Europe Africa & Asia & The Americas o Positive change o New products/crops Tomatoes & Potatoes are not European Horses are not American, brought by Europeans Indians are among the best fighters and wanted guns so they got them via trade STORY OF HYBRIDIZATION Downside of Contact o Can’t take away knowledge o Inevitably lots of Indians assimilate due to unbalance of power o Disease o Not on purpose o Smallpox o Malaria o Yellow Fever o 50% die over the next year Can’t beat them Join them o Syphillus (STD) Will kill until the 19 century Kills a lot of Europeans 8/31/16 The Race for America (1492-1630) America isn’t a country, but colonies o European Colonies In order for 1 country to ‘win’, another must lose Late medieval is all about land Ships make it possible to find more land God Glory and Gold Every country during this era followed this God/religion is most important o Indians were not Christian o As long as people were Christian they will accept all that is done o Christianity is split during protestant reformation o If you asked why they were finding land, they’d start with religion Glory – Individual Glory o Countries are ruled as a monarchy King owns the country o No thing as a nation yet o When a country settles land they add to the royal family’s prestige Gold (most emphasis) o Sometimes (Spanish) literally mean gold o Any resource o Colonies were made for ?? MONEY o Not a simple eco idea Prince Henry “The Navigator” 1394-1460 First to set off & explore are Portuguese (after trade) The trade between Europe & Asia is controlled by the Ottomans They can control trade (Ottoman) o TAX 1450, Portuguese piss Ottoman off & cut them off Prince, Sails around Africa o Very dangerous o Inspires others to follow o Spanish wouldn’t of paid Columbus if it wasn’t for this Mercantilism Goal: Enrich the state Control of trade (tax) Colonies o Resources o New Markets o Stimulate trade Get wealth Market Inequality o Controlling trade Money does not equal power New World offers a ton of exploitable land They wanted a settlement colony Gold is new major renewable resource 2 whole continents for trade TAX is how you make $ through colonies (NEW MARKETS) *Mercantilism IS WHY AMERICA WAS SETTLED Spanish Colonialism Far the best colonies o They are brutal o Don’t care about native people o Force them all to catholisism, then enslave o 1 to profit off New World o Encomienda (plantation) o Powerful Army o Had a Navy to collect taxes o Benefit the most Spanish Empire “The empire on which the sun never set” At one point Spain was the most powerful Controlled half of West Europe Literally settled almost everywhere Spain was more Catholic than the Pope Run colonies like country Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) France is not poor & does not need colonies Not until 1530’s before colonizations Jacques does not sail the Spanish trail and ends up in Canada o Starts 1 French settlements o Explore St. Lawrence area o Montreal Samuel o 1630s sent to New France o Explores until he is told to quit messing around o Turns New France into a colony o French did not impose will, instead they made friends with Indians o Traded o Settled near Louisiana up to Canada Henry Hudson (1560s – 1611) o Explore north of current US o Hudson River o Dutch settlement of new world o New Amsterdam in New York o No state to pay for colonization & takes 50 years to be profitable England is Poor but eventually settle 13 colonies in the worst spot ever. 9/2/16 Early Settlements (1570-1660s) English Colonization o Discover a working colonization method Sir Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 Executed for treason Sets up a colony in 1855 in North Carolina Supply ships stop Croawatoan (Carved in a tree) o Indian tribe that lived near o Colonists assimilated Raleigh’s method does not work Joint Stock company o Virginia Company Jamestown 1607 o King James Also had problems Weren’t accustomed to Americas Powhatan o Competition Starving Time (1609 – 1610) o One of the coldest times in America o Almost wiped the colony out John Smith 1580 – 1631 Colony made of spoiled rich kids They implemented a strict military law Penalty for stealing food is being nude with your tongue nailed to a tree John Smith Didn’t want to stay in colony Captured by Indians Daughter of Chief, Pocahantas (1595-1617), saved him. She was 12 Contrary to popular belief, there was no romance She married another colonists James Town No trade routes near Tobacco o Grows everywhere o Jamestown tobacco is too strong to sell John Rolfe (1585-1622) o Sees Jamestown’s problem o Takes tobacco in Virginia & knows it’s too strong o Central/South America is perfect o Genetically engineers tobacco o It becomes a cash crop o Cure Tobacco Tobacco SAVES Jamestown Virginia Colony Headright system o Send out surveyors to map colony o Headright section o 40-100 acres o Free Land BUT You have to be productive o Headright becomes part of Marian Law o House of Burgesses 1619 First government in new world Virginia Company bankrupt Estcted group or representatives 1 elected legislature in New World o Jamestown MADE it Puritans Religious separatists Did not fit in in Europe William Bradford (1590-1657) o Leader of puritan o Mayflower (1620) o Mayflower Compact Religious undertone Convenant Representative system of government 1 American constitution o Landed in 1620 (cape Cod) o Get back on ship to go to mainland o Indian cooperation o Hard workers o Plymouth Colony o Squanto taught crops to them But how did they communicate? Squanto spoke English Americans taught them by exploring the cost Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628) Less strict puritans Best harbors in North Boston o Major trading port Prosper Representative government Connecticut 1636 New haven Connecticut Colony Border w/ Dutch Colony Protesting Protesters Religious freedom meant freedom for puritan to be the only freedom No real freedom Roger Williams (1603-1683) We don’t have religious freedom Exiled him from Massachusetts Bay Found Rhode Island It truly was religious freedom o Until roger dies William Penn (1644-1718) Pennsylvania (1683) Quakers His father is rich George Calvert, Lord Baltimore (1579-1632) Maryland 1633 Only English Catholic Colony James Oglethorpe (1696-1785) Georgia 1732 Conquest 1655 Dutch take control of New Sweden By 1670 English take control of both (New York / New Jersey )
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