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Psychology 232 notes

by: Annika Verburg

Psychology 232 notes Psych 232

Annika Verburg

GPA 3.8
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About this Document

These notes are lecture notes that will be on the exam.
Developmental Psychology
Jessice Nguyen
Class Notes




Popular in Developmental Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annika Verburg on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 232 at Abilene Christian University taught by Jessice Nguyen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Abilene Christian University.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Psychology Notes Day 4 notes o Second Trimester: 13 (ish) (morning sickness stops at 14-16) o Rapid growth & fetal movement  Mom can feel baby at around 22 o Vernix & lanugo o Neurons by 24 weeks o Light & sound o Third Trimester: 25 -> end (40)  Average: 20 inches 7.5 lbs. o Edge of viability =24 weeks  Every week + 24 doubles chance of fetal survival o Very last thing to finish -> lungs o Teratogens: environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development o Dose: how much o Heredity: how biologically tough o Age: of both fetus and mother o Length of exposure: how long o Other negative factors: poor nutrition Day 5 o Types:  Prescription and non-prescription (OTC) drugs:  Classify -> A,B,C o A means that it is approved by FDA, and scientifically proven to not be harmful to the fetus o B pretty sure it’s safe, not all the research (late nd rd 2 and 3 trimester) o C no research in pregnant humans  Illegal drugs: the mom is impacted o Baby is born addicted to the same drugs with low birth weight, brain damage, organ failure/malformation  Tobacco: o Addicted, low birth weight  Radiation: o Causes cells to change  Alcohol o FASD:  Slow physical growth, 3 facial abnormalities, brain injury  Food: o Fish, caffeine, undercooked meat, soft cheeses, lunch meat, honey  Pollution  Emotional stress  Prenatal care  Maternal age  Delivery 4 stages o 1 dilation and afacement o 2 transition and contraction, cervix dilates to 10 o 3 pushing with the contractions o 4 birth happens once the shoulders are out of the vaginal cavities Physical -> Infancy:  body: o muscle-fat ratio  newborn-low body fat and muscle  3 months’ body fat ration sky rockets  maintain temperature  Cephalocaudal: head to tail  Proximodorsal: near to far “center out”  Brain Development o Neurons: brain cell, transmit messages using chemicals called neuro transmitters (serotonin, dopamine, noropinephane) o Programmed cell death  Mass death of 1000s of neurons at a time  Creates space  20 to 80 % of neurons will die if not reassigned (keep them by using them) o Synaptic pruning  How your brain will choose which neurons will die and which one will not die.  Happens in infancy, toddler,  Myelination: special type of cell (glial) coat committed neurons with a fatty sheath o lateralization  two hemispheres (right and left): opposite from sensory message  left brain is more verbal, and positive emotion processing  right brain is more quantitative, special and negative emotion processing  (left handed people are opposite) o specialize a hemisphere  plasticity: moldable, changeable, adaptable. High plasticity, higher capacity for learning Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage  First stage of cognitive development theory  Spans the first two years of life.  Toddlers and infants “think” with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment.  Cannot yet carry out many activities inside their heads.  Specific psychological structures—organized ways of making sense of experience called schemes (storage of information)  Adaptation involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment o During assimilation, we use our current schemes to interpret the external world. o In accommodation, we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely. Piaget’s Pre-operational Stage  2nd after sensorimotor stage  Stage begins around 2 years old  Lasts until about 7 years old  Children do not have the ability to think logically  Do not possess mental operations—unable to manipulate information o Have to physically put the sticks together to see that it will be a long stick, tennis/baseball Symbols in play  Children in the preoperational stage begin engaging in imaginative play with others  Simple games that don’t really have a goal  Gender differences in play might be noticeable  They are able to pretend and assign roles to objects and people o The area under the table is a house o Imaginary friend o I am the mommy o This stuffed animal is my baby Egocentrism  Young children are not able to consider the perspectives of another person  Often play an imaginary game together, but may be playing out different scenarios or focused on different aspects  I’m going to feed the baby, I’m going to bathe the dog  Cannot imagine what another person sees, feels, likes, dislikes o Model video “tell me what you see.” Conservation  Young children are not able to understand conservation  Can only focus on one characteristic of an object at a time. If it appears bigger or to be more, then it is. o Quarter video “Which one is bigger?” Vygotsky:  Sociocultural Theory o Language is the foundation of all cognitive organization o Private Speech: (normal) speech not expected for anyone else except for themselves  Begins around 5  once they go to school, the speech turns inward, but when they go home they speak all of the time, because of the social influence.  Their base and how they begin to develop self-regulation, guidance, and boundaries.  Because there wasn’t somebody there, she had to work it out some way, so she had to work it out loud. o Scaffolding  Within the proximal zone of development  A hierarchy of social learning, implanted cognitively  We understand that a 3 year old is below us because they don’t get to do what we do and they don’t know what we know.  Within the zone of proximal development o Situational and generational changes faster than cultural stuff o Without social and cultural influences our development would stall  How those things change is based on culture  Cell phone  3 year olds now vs. 3 year old 10 years ago  Cognitive structures prioritizes other things, that’s why some children know how to work computers and older people don’t  doesn’t mean that they aren’t as smart, just different priorities  Information Processing o Attention, Planning, Memory  Interest, Distain  Episodic (everyday) memories increase  Metacognition  The awareness of our own thoughts and cognition.


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