Human Development and Learning Chapter 1: Introduction
Human Development and Learning Chapter 1: Introduction EDU 215
Popular in Human Development and Learning
Popular in Social Science
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
MATH 100 - 004
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Trecartin on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 215 at Southwestern Michigan College taught by Dr. Carolyn Hodge-West in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Development and Learning in Social Science at Southwestern Michigan College.
Reviews for Human Development and Learning Chapter 1: Introduction
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 1: Introduction I. An Orientation to Lifespan Development A. Lifespan development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occurs throughout the life span. B. Characterizing Lifespan Development: The Scope of the Field 1. Topical Areas in Lifespan Development a. Some developmentalists focus on physical development, examining the ways in which the body’s makeup helps determine the behavior. b. Other developmental specialists examine cognitive development, seeking to understand how growth and change in intellectual capabilities influences a person’s behavior. c. Personality development is the study of stability and change in the characteristics that differentiate one person from another over the life span. d. Social development is the way in which individuals’ interactions and relationships with others grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life. 2. Age Ranges and Individual Differences a. The parental period: conception to birth b. Infancy & toddler hood: birth to 3 c. Preschool period: 36 d. Middle childhood: 612 e. Adolescence: 1220 f. Young adulthood: 2040 g. Middle adulthood: 4060 h. Late adulthood: 60death C. Cohort and Other Influences on Development Developing with Others in a Social World 1. A cohort is a group of people born at or around the same time in the same place. 2. Cohort effects are an example of historygraded influences, biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment. 3. In contrast, agegraded influences are biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group; regardless of when or where they are raised. 4. Development is also affected by socioculturalgraded influences, the social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual depending on such variables as ethnicity, social class, and subcultural membership. 5. Finally, nonnormative life events are specific, atypical events that occur in a particular person’s life at a time when such events do not happen to most people. II. Key Issues and Questions: Determining the Nature—and Nurture—of Lifespan Development A. Continuous Change Versus Discontinuous Change 1. In continuous change, development is gradual, with achievements at one level building on those of pervious levels. 2. In contrast, discontinuous change occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different form behavior at earlier stages. B. Critical and Sensitive Periods: Gauging the Impact of Environmental Events 1. A critical period is a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences. Critical periods occur when the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally. 2. In a sensitive period, organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments. In contrast to a critical period, however, the absence of those stimuli during a sensitive period does not always produce irreversible consequences. C. The Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture Development 1. Nature refers to traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from one’s parent. a. It encompasses any factor that is produced by the predetermined unfolding of genetic information—a process known as maturation. 2. Nurture refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior. III. The Psychodynamic, Behavioral, and Cognitive Perspectives A. The Psychodynamic Perspective: Focusing on the Inner Person 1. The psychodynamic perspective is the approach that states behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts that are generally beyond people’s awareness and control. 2. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory a. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory suggest that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior. b. Freud’s psychosexual development is a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure, gratification, is focuses on a particular biological function and body part. 3. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory a. Psychosocial development encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another; as well as in our knowledge and understanding of us as members of society. B. The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable Behavior 1. Behavioral perspective is the approach that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment. 2. Classical conditioning occurs when an organism learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus. 3. Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequence 4. Principles of operant conditioning are used in behavior modification, a formal technique for prompting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidences of unwanted ones. 5. The socialcognitive learning theory is learning by observing the behavior of another person called a model. C. The Cognitive Perspective: Examining the Roots of Understanding 1. The cognitive perspective focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world. 2. Information processing approaches to cognitive development seek to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information. 3. One of the most recent additions to the array of approaches are cognitive neuroscience approaches, which look at cognitive development at the level of brain processes. IV. The Humanistic, Contextual, and Evolutionary Perspectives A. The Humanistic Perspective: Concentrating on Uniquely Human Qualities 1. The humanistic perspective is the theory that contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior. B. The Contextual Perspective: Taking a Broad Approach to Development 1. The contextual perspective considers the relationship between individuals and their physical cognitive, personality, and social worlds. 2. The Bioecological Approach to Development a. The bioecological approach suggests that there are five levels of the environment that simultaneously influences individuals. i. The microsystem is the everyday, immediate environment of children’s daily lives. ii. The mesosystem binds children to parents, students to teachers, employees to bosses, friends to friends. iii. The exosystem represents broader influences: societal institutions such as local government, the community, schools, places of worship, and the local media. iv. The chronosystem underlies each of the previous systems. b. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory i. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture. C. Evolutionary Perspectives: Our Ancestors’ Contributions to Behavior 1. The evolutionary perspective seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. V. Theories, Hypotheses, and Correlational Studies A. Theories and Hypotheses: Posing Developmental Questions 1. The scientific method is the process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and collecting data. a. The scientific method involved three major steps. i. Identifying questions of interest ii. Formulating an explanation iii. Carrying out research that either lends support to the explanation or refutes it. 2. A hypothesis is a prediction slated in a way that permits it to be tested. B. Choosing a Research Strategy: Answering Questions 1. Correlational research cannot determine whether one factor causes changes in the other. 2. In contrast, experimental research is designed to discover causal relationships between various factors. C. Correlational Studies 1. Naturalistic observation is the observation of a naturally occurring behavior without intervention. 2. Case studies are studies that involve extensive, indepth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals. 3. Survey research, is a type of study where a group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitude, behavior, or thinking on a given topic. 4. Psychophysiological Methods a. Psychophysiological methods focus on the relationship between physiological processes and behavior. b. Electroencephalogram (EEG) i. The EEG uses electrodes placed on the skull to record electrical activity in the brain. c. Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) Scan i. A computer constructs an image of the brain by combining thousands of individual xrays taken at slightly different angles. d. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Scan i. Provides a detailed threedimensional computergenerated image of brain activity by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the brain. VI. Experiments: Determining Cause and Effect A. In an experiment an investigator or experimenter typically devises two different conditions (or treatments) and compares how the behavior of the participants exposed to each condition is affected. 1. One group, the treatment group, is exposed to the treatment variable being studied; the other, the control group is not. B. Independent and Dependent Variables 1. The independent variable is the variable that researches manipulate in the experiment. 2. In contrast, the dependent variable is the variable that researchers measure to see if it changes as a result of the experimental manipulation. C. Choosing a Research Setting 1. A sample is a group of participants chosen for the experiment. 2. A field study is a research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting. 3. A laboratory study is a research investigation conducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to hold events constant. D. Theoretical and Applied Research: Complementary Approaches 1. Theoretical research is designed to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge, while applied research is meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems. E. Measuring Developmental Change 1. In longitudinal research, the behavior of one or more study participants is measures as they go. 2. In crosssectional studies, people of different ages are compared at the same point in time. 3. In sequential studies, researches examine a number of different age group at several point in time. F. Ethics and Research 1. Ethical Guidelines a. Researchers must protect participants from physical and psychological harm. b. Researchers must obtain informed consent from participants before their involvement. c. The use of deception in research must be justified and cause no harm. d. Participants privacy must be maintained.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'