Chapter 3 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Francy on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KNES 315 at Towson University taught by Gail Parr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Care and Prevention of Athletic Injury in Kinesiology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 3 Notes Conditioning and Injury Prevention Basic Principles of Conditioning: ● Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID) ● States that the body responds to a given demand with a specific and predictable adaptation. Overload: ● States that physiologic improvements occur only when an individual physically demands more of the body than is normally required. ● If the demands are within appropriate physiological limits, the body will adapt and improve its function. ● If the demands are too strenuous, there is a risk of injury. Frequency: ● Refers to the number of exercise sessions per day or week. Intensity: ● Reflects both the caloric cost of the work and the specific energy systems activated. ● Refers to the amount of work being done during an exercise. Duration: ● Refers to the length of a single exercise session. ● Recommended duration may be stated in terms of minutes or the number of repetitions and sets. Flexibility: ● Total Range of Motion (ROM) at a joint that occurs pain-free in each of the planes of motion. Joint Flexibility: ● A combination of normal joint mechanics, mobility of soft tissues, and muscle extensibility. Physiological Responses: ● Muscles contain two primary proprioceptors that can be stimulated during stretching, namely the muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. Stretching Techniques Ballistic Stretching: ● Uses repetitive bouncing motions at the end of the available ROM. ● Muscle spindles are repetitively stretched, but because the bouncing motions are short of duration, the Golgi tendon organs do not fire. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) ● Promotes and hastens the response of the neuromuscular system through stimulation of the proprioceptors. Active Inhibition: ● The muscle group reflexively relaxes prior to the stretching maneuver. Reciprocal Inhibition: ● Uses active agonist contractions to relax a tight antagonist muscle. ● Muscle lengthens. Static Strength: ● Involves isometric contraction. ● Tension is produced by the muscle, but there is no change in muscle length. Dynamic Strength: ● Isotonic contraction. Isotonic Contraction: 1. Concentric 2. Eccentric Concentric: ● Shortening of muscle fibers, which decreases the angle of the associated. Eccentric: ● The muscle resists its own lengthening, so that the joint angle increases during the contraction. ● Generate greater force than isometric contractions, and isometric contractions generate greater force than concentric contractions. ● Less tension is required. Isotonic Training: ● Progressive resistive exercise ● A muscle contraction generates a force to move a constant load throughout the ROM at a variable speed. ● Both concentric and eccentric contractions are possible with free weights, elastic or rubber tubing, and weight machines. Isokinetic Training: ● Accommodating resistance ● Allows an individual to provide muscular overload and angular movement to rotate a lever arm at a controlled velocity or fixed speed. ● Should activate the max number of motor units, which consistently overloads muscles and achieves max tension-developing or force output capacity at every point in the ROM, even at the relatively “weaker” joint angles. Cardiorespiratory Endurance: ● Can be aerobic or anaerobic depending upon the energy system being utilized. ● Aerobic exercise requires oxygen to produce energy.
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