Ch. 6 Learning Notes
Ch. 6 Learning Notes PSY 1013
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by justin_1522 on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Ashley Coleman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 6 Learning Learning is a process by which behavior or knowledge changes as a result of experience Cognitive Learning includes reading, listening, and taking tests to acquire new knowledge Associative learning includes how we come to pair certain stimuli Classical Conditioning CC is learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was original caused by another stimulus A stimulus is an external event or cue that elicits a response Stimuli elicit different types of responses These responses can be reflexive(unconditioned or unlearned) or learned(conditioned) An unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without learning (food, water, pain, sexual contact) An unconditioned response is a reflexive, unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus( flinching & blinking) A conditioned response is an once stimulus that elicits a conditioned response because it has a history of being paired with a conditioned stimulus A conditioned response is the learned response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus Pavlov’s Conditioning Experiment Food elicits the conditioned response of salivation Before conditioning, the tone elicits no response by the dog Classical Conditioning Processes Acquisition is the initial phase of learning in which a response is established A critical part of acquisition is the predictability with which the CS and US occur together Extinction is the loss or weakening of a CR when a CS and US no longer occur together Even after extinction occurs, it is possible for the CR to return Spontaneous recovery is the reoccurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response, typically after sometime has passed since extinction Spontaneous recovery suggests extinction does not result in forgetting, but in learning something new Generalization is a process in which a response that originally occurs to a specific stimulus also occurs to different stimuli Pavlov’s dogs didn’t salivate to every noise they heard Discrimination occurs when an organism learns to respond to one original stimulus but not to new stimuli that maybe similar to the original stimulus Pavlov’s dogs would only salivate in response to the original tone used in the experiment Additional Ex. Examples of generalization and discrimination can be seen in the language development in children Generalization: child calls all four-legged animals “dog” Discrimination: child only calls dogs “dogs” Generalization: child calls all dogs “ Max” Discrimination: child only calls own dog “Max” Our emotional responses could be influenced by classical conditioning( i.e. conditioned fear and anxiety) We are predisposed to acquire fear of objects that are threatening versus those that are not Preparedness refers to the biological redisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuli From an evolutionary perspective, those who learned to fear animals that were fatal were more likely to survive One ex. Is a conditioned taste aversion, or the acquired dislike or disgust of a food or disgust of a food or drinking because it was paired with illness Conditioned taste aversions- the CS and US have be paired together Food aversion Operant Conditioning OC is a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by consequences The term operant is used because the individual operates on the environment before consequences can occur Unlike CC, OC involves voluntary action. CC involves reflexive responses CC also doesn’t require a response for a reward Contingent means a consequence depends upon an action Ex: Earning good grades is contingent upon studying The consequences of a behavior can be either reinforcing or punishing Reinforcement is a process in which an event or reward that follows a response increases the likelihood of that response occurring again The effects of reinforcement were first studied by Edward Thorndike Thorndike’s law of effect states that responses followed by satisfaction will occur again, while those not followed by satisfaction will become less likely to occur The operant chamber is a standard laboratory apparatus for studying OC The rat can press the level to receive a reinforce such as food or water The light can be used to indicate when lever pressing will be rewarded The recording device measures cumulative responses over time Both reinforces and punishers are stimuli that are contingent upon a response. They are defined based on their effects on behaviors A reinforcer increases the probability that a response will occur again A punisher decreases the probability that a response will occur again Reinforcers Can come in basic forms or in forms that we learn have value Primary reinforcers consist of reinforcing stimuli that acquire their value through learning Secondary reinforcers consist of reinforcing stimuli that acquire their value through learning Reinforcement Behavior can be increased through reward or through the removal of adverse stimuli Positive reinforcement is the strengthening of behavior after potential reinforcers such as praise, money, or nourishment following that behavior Negative reinforcement involves the strengthening of a behavior because it removes or diminishes a stimulus Avoidance learning is a specific type of negative reinforcement Escape learning occurs if a response removes a stimulus that is already present Punishment Behavior can be decreased through punishment Positive punishment is a process in which a behavior decreases negative it adds or increases a particular stimulus Negative punishment occurs when a behavior decreases because it removes or diminishes a particular stimulus Extinction refers to the weakening of an or when reinforcement is no longer available Generalization occurs when an OR takes places to a new stimulus that is similar to the stimulus present during original learning Discrimination occurs when an OR is made to one stimulus but not to another, even similar stimulus Shaping Shaping is a procedure in which a specific operant response is created by reinforcing successive approximations of that response Shaping is done in a step-by-step fashion until the desired response is learned Schedules of Reinforcement SR are rules that determine when reinforcement is available Reinforcement may be available at predictable or irregular times Continuous reinforcement occurs when every response made results in reinforcement Partial( intermittent) reinforcement occurs when only a certain number of responses are rewarded, or a certain amount of time must pass before reinforcement is available 4 Types of RS Ratio schedules are based on the amount of responding Fixed-schedule: reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been completed Variable ratio schedule: the number of responses required to receive reinforcement varies according to an average Interval schedules are based on the passage of time, not the # of responses Fixed- interval schedules: the first response is reinforced after a set amount of time passes Variable-interval schedule: the first response is reinforced following a variable amount of time passes Partial reinforcement effect: organisms that have been conditioned under partial reinforcement resist extinction longer than those conditioned under continuous reinforcement Punishment People tend to be more sensitive to punishment than they are to rewards there are ethical concerns around the use of punishments When severe, corporal punishment is associated with poorer parent- child relationships, delinquency in children, and children becoming victims or perpetrators of abuse in adulthood Less harsh forms of punishment are more effective and are associated with fewer negative side effects Punishment is most effective when combined with reinforcement of an alternative, suitable behavior Cognitive Perspectives on Learning Latent learning is learning that is not immediately expressed by a response until the organism is reinforced for doing so. Cognitive maps were passed by rats in experimental situations that allowed them to navigate the maze Humans have similar cognitive maps of their surroundings Long-Term Learning Humans are highly attuned to their own learning and states of knowledge. We often fall into one of three habits that results in only shorten effects and vary little improvement over time We want clarity about what to learn or do We want very noticeable results We want it all to happen very fast Desirable Difficulties To really remember and understand something, learning should be a little more difficult. DD are situations that make acquiring new knowledge more challenging DD have benefits that are less obvious in the short term DD promote long-term learning and the ability to transfer new learning Research has shown that working on new material to make connections helps understanding Observational Learning- Albert Bandura OL involves changes in behavior and knowledge that result from watching others Many cultural customs are spread through observation 4 Processes of OL Attention to the act or behavior Memory for it Ability to reproduce it Motivation to do so Imitation is recreating a motor behavior or expression, often to accomplish a specific goal Bandura formally conducted experiments on children to study the effects of observing aggressive acts and aggressive behavior in those children
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