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Week 6

by: Ivy Notetaker

Week 6 Psyc 3580

Ivy Notetaker
GPA 3.38

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Lecture notes from Sept 20 and Sept 22 social psychology.
Social Psychology
Dr. Gitter
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivy Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3580 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Gitter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Social Psychology 9/20/16 Simulation Heuristic ­ Mr. Crane and Mr. Tees were scheduled to leave the airport on different flights, at the  same time. They traveled from town in the same limousine, were caught in a traffic jam,  and arrived at the airport 30 minutes after the scheduled departure of their flights. Mr.  Crane is told that his flight left on time. Mr. Tees is told that his flight was delayed and  just left 5 minutes ago. Who is more upset? Mr. Crane or Mr. Tees ­ Mr. Tees easily could have made it if one thing was different: taken different route,  packed earlier, limo come earlier ­ More difficult to come up with reasons for 30 minutes late. ­ Would Mr. Tees actually be more upset? o One function of emotions: Anticipate future problems o Just missgreater emotion than expected  Better chance to avoid o Big missless emotion than expected  Little chance of avoiding Representative Heuristic ­ Classifying something as belonging to a certain category because it is similar to typical  case from that category. o A fair coin is tossed 10 times. Which is more likely?  A. THTTHHTHHT  B. TTTTTHHHHH  C. Equally as likely.  o Both sequences are equally as likely because each toss is 50/50.  ­ Dick is a 40 year old man who enjoys chess, classical music, and fine wine. Dick is more  likely a:  A. Truck driver  B. College professor o Most people answered college professor, but truck driver is more likely because  there are more truck drivers. ­ Base rate fallacy: ignore relevant probabilities in favor of salient representative  information ­ Benefits of representativeness: o Categorization is important in some circumstances   Ex. Animals with black and yellow circumstances  Blue uniforms and shiny badge= police officer=helpful  Can lead to stereotyping=schemas/scripts are representative information Representativeness, Availability, and Motivated Reasoning ­ Gambler’s fallacy­ my luck will change; fluctuations in luck in hands of poker,  continuing playing with bad hands ­ Hot hand­ my luck with continue; good hands of cards mean you’re on a lucky streak ­ People addicted to gambling will use both and never stop gambling.  Heuristics? ­ Why do we use them? o Because they simplify things. ­ When do we use them? o When we lack either the ability or the motivation to think more carefully. ***Look at processes in availability (accessibility) heuristic. ***Know difference between availability heuristic and representative heuristic. Social Beliefs and Judgements ­ Types of Attributions o Dispositional: internal attributions, personality  Traits  Characteristics  Internal to person o Situational: external attributions; most people in same situation would do the  same thing  Environmental  Circumstances  External to person ­ Fundamental Attribution Error o When people underestimate the influence of the situation on other’s behavior and  overestimates dispositional influences  More likely to blame FAE for negative behavior, than positive behavior. ­ Castro Study (1980s) o Participants read essay by another “participant” (about Castro)  Either pro or anti­ Castro  Either assigned or freely chosen o Chosen: pro­Castro= 60%, anti­Castro=20% o Assigned: pro­Castro=45%, anti­Castro=20% ­ False assumptions based on FAE:  o We often ignore obvious situational information.  o Quiz show study  Coin flip decides who is questioner and contestant. o Rate general knowledge level of questioner and contestant.  Rated by: questioner, contestant, other participants  Questioner voted smarter because he has answers. o We often assume actors have the characteristics of the people they portray.  Lisa KudrowPhoebe from friends; actually has a master’s degree in  Chemistry ­ Actor­ Observer Effect (Correspondence Bias) o Construe situation to benefit the self  Success­ because of me (disposition)  Failure­ not because of me (situation)  Ex. passing a test= very smart; failing a test= no sleep, bad teacher, other  excuses o Benefit of thinking this way:  Makes you feel better about yourself; positive self­image o Drawbacks?  Not studying for next test because not taking responsibility for failing test o People with major depressive disorder see this in reverse.  ­ Self­serving bias extended o Judgements about self’s role in outcome depends on stability and internal/external attributions Internal External Stable Ability Task difficulty Unstable Effort Bad luck o Influences: how you feel about yourself and motivation going forward. ­ Self­handicapping­ making it more likely to for you to fail, so you’ll have an excuse  when you do fail o External attributions can come after…  …or before the event.  o Preemptively providing excuses for less than exceptional behavior  Ex. claiming sick when most likely to fail athletic event  Showing up drunk or hungover to job interview you most likely not going  to get.  Procrastination ­ False uniqueness/consensus o Consensus/distinctiveness meets the self­serving bias o Tendency to see  Positive attributes as unique (False uniqueness)  No one has hands like mine!  Negative attributes as common (False consensus)  Everyone is doing it! 9/22/16 ­ Other “Errors” and “Biases” o Confirmation bias­ people try to confirm their theories not disconfirm them;  tendency to search for information that confirms one’s views  Ex. political views, conspiracy theorists o Horoscopes­ what’s the appeal?  Give all positive things about most people.  The Problem with Prophecies: ­ Subjects presented with a diary of woman interested in the prophetic nature of dreams o In journal, half of dreams are confirmed.  Prophecy­ saw lots of people being happy  Confirmation­ my professor canceled class, whole class cheered o After reading journal, subjects completed a filler task and then recalled as many  dreams as they could. o Results: percentage recalled­ dreams confirmed 58%, not confirmed 28% ­ Some prophecies can come true… o …not necessarily the result of any ability of the psychic to predict the future  however o Rather our expectancies can influence our behavior.  Ex. Psychic tells you that you are going to meet the love of your life this  weekend.  What do you think you’ll do that weekend? Go out more, meet new  people, talk to potential dates, etc. ­ Self­fulfilling prophecy­ people’s expectations lead them to act in ways that result in the  confirmation of their beliefs o Ex. stock market crashes: before crash, rumors of crash made people take money  out. As a result, stock market crashed. o Ex. “Bloomers” study­ teachers led to believe certain children would “bloom”.  Teachers show those children more attention, making them bloom. ­ Which parent would you award/deny custody to? o Parent A:  Average income  Average health  Average working hours  Reasonable rapport with child  Relatively stable social life o Parent B:   Above­average income   Minor health problems  Lots of work related travel  Very close relationship with the child  Extremely active social life ­ Framing effect: o When asked to select parent to award child to:  Most subjects selected parent B o When asked to select parent they would deny child to:  Most subjects selected parent B o Why?  When thinking of best parent, subjects look for the good information.  When thinking of worst parent, subjects look for the bad information.  Parent B (the mixed bag parent) has a little of both.  o This framing effect is related to the confirmation bias.  *Motivated reasoning: People don’t want to be right; they want to think they are  right. They will only believe evidence that backs beliefs. Emotion ­ Definition based on what happens:  Significant life eventemotionsense of purpose (function and goal directedness), bodily  arousal (physiological activation and preparedness for action), feeling (subjective experience, phenomenological awareness, cognitive interdependence), social­expressive (face, body,  vocal) Central Questions about Emotion: ­ What causes emotion? o Cognition or biology  What’s the mediator? Biological perspective:  ­ Evidence­ emotions start with biological processes o Infants (even those born blind) show emotion early on.  Smiling­ 3 weeks old  Anger­ 2 months old o Diversity of emotion expressiveness more in seeing children­ some emotion  expressions is learned. o As we age, learning/cognition plays a larger role  Ekman (1992)­ emotions:  Come on quickly  Are difficult to control  Panksepp (1982;1984)  Cognition is a verbal process.  Emotions are difficult to describe.  Electrical stimulation can stimulate emotional processing.  Emotional processing occurs in infants and nonhuman animals. Physiological perspective:  ­ James­Lang theory­ physical experience leads to emotion  o We are sad because we are crying. o We are happy because we are smiling. o TIGERFEAR AROUSALFEAR ­ The Pencil Study­ hold with lips=frown, hold with teeth=smile o Facial Feedback Hypothesis ­ The Golf Tee Study­ on eyebrows; don’t let them touch=calm face, keep them  touching= angry grimace o Asked people to rate comics: smiling rated them as funnier than people who were  frowning or grimacing.  Biological Approach ­ Russell and the Circumplex o 2 dimensions of emotion  Valence­ positive to negative  Arousal­ low to high ­ Because there is a limit to the variability in physiological responses, there is a limit to  what we can actually call emotion.  ­ So how many emotions are there? Ekman’s requirements for Basic Emotions: 1. Innate, not learned. 2. Arise from the same circumstances for all people.  3. Expressed uniquely and distinctly. 4. Evoke a distinctive and highly predictable physiological patterned response.


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