Popular in Social Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivy Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3580 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Gitter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
Reviews for Week 6
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/26/16
Social Psychology 9/20/16 Simulation Heuristic Mr. Crane and Mr. Tees were scheduled to leave the airport on different flights, at the same time. They traveled from town in the same limousine, were caught in a traffic jam, and arrived at the airport 30 minutes after the scheduled departure of their flights. Mr. Crane is told that his flight left on time. Mr. Tees is told that his flight was delayed and just left 5 minutes ago. Who is more upset? Mr. Crane or Mr. Tees Mr. Tees easily could have made it if one thing was different: taken different route, packed earlier, limo come earlier More difficult to come up with reasons for 30 minutes late. Would Mr. Tees actually be more upset? o One function of emotions: Anticipate future problems o Just missgreater emotion than expected Better chance to avoid o Big missless emotion than expected Little chance of avoiding Representative Heuristic Classifying something as belonging to a certain category because it is similar to typical case from that category. o A fair coin is tossed 10 times. Which is more likely? A. THTTHHTHHT B. TTTTTHHHHH C. Equally as likely. o Both sequences are equally as likely because each toss is 50/50. Dick is a 40 year old man who enjoys chess, classical music, and fine wine. Dick is more likely a: A. Truck driver B. College professor o Most people answered college professor, but truck driver is more likely because there are more truck drivers. Base rate fallacy: ignore relevant probabilities in favor of salient representative information Benefits of representativeness: o Categorization is important in some circumstances Ex. Animals with black and yellow circumstances Blue uniforms and shiny badge= police officer=helpful Can lead to stereotyping=schemas/scripts are representative information Representativeness, Availability, and Motivated Reasoning Gambler’s fallacy my luck will change; fluctuations in luck in hands of poker, continuing playing with bad hands Hot hand my luck with continue; good hands of cards mean you’re on a lucky streak People addicted to gambling will use both and never stop gambling. Heuristics? Why do we use them? o Because they simplify things. When do we use them? o When we lack either the ability or the motivation to think more carefully. ***Look at processes in availability (accessibility) heuristic. ***Know difference between availability heuristic and representative heuristic. Social Beliefs and Judgements Types of Attributions o Dispositional: internal attributions, personality Traits Characteristics Internal to person o Situational: external attributions; most people in same situation would do the same thing Environmental Circumstances External to person Fundamental Attribution Error o When people underestimate the influence of the situation on other’s behavior and overestimates dispositional influences More likely to blame FAE for negative behavior, than positive behavior. Castro Study (1980s) o Participants read essay by another “participant” (about Castro) Either pro or anti Castro Either assigned or freely chosen o Chosen: proCastro= 60%, antiCastro=20% o Assigned: proCastro=45%, antiCastro=20% False assumptions based on FAE: o We often ignore obvious situational information. o Quiz show study Coin flip decides who is questioner and contestant. o Rate general knowledge level of questioner and contestant. Rated by: questioner, contestant, other participants Questioner voted smarter because he has answers. o We often assume actors have the characteristics of the people they portray. Lisa KudrowPhoebe from friends; actually has a master’s degree in Chemistry Actor Observer Effect (Correspondence Bias) o Construe situation to benefit the self Success because of me (disposition) Failure not because of me (situation) Ex. passing a test= very smart; failing a test= no sleep, bad teacher, other excuses o Benefit of thinking this way: Makes you feel better about yourself; positive selfimage o Drawbacks? Not studying for next test because not taking responsibility for failing test o People with major depressive disorder see this in reverse. Selfserving bias extended o Judgements about self’s role in outcome depends on stability and internal/external attributions Internal External Stable Ability Task difficulty Unstable Effort Bad luck o Influences: how you feel about yourself and motivation going forward. Selfhandicapping making it more likely to for you to fail, so you’ll have an excuse when you do fail o External attributions can come after… …or before the event. o Preemptively providing excuses for less than exceptional behavior Ex. claiming sick when most likely to fail athletic event Showing up drunk or hungover to job interview you most likely not going to get. Procrastination False uniqueness/consensus o Consensus/distinctiveness meets the selfserving bias o Tendency to see Positive attributes as unique (False uniqueness) No one has hands like mine! Negative attributes as common (False consensus) Everyone is doing it! 9/22/16 Other “Errors” and “Biases” o Confirmation bias people try to confirm their theories not disconfirm them; tendency to search for information that confirms one’s views Ex. political views, conspiracy theorists o Horoscopes what’s the appeal? Give all positive things about most people. The Problem with Prophecies: Subjects presented with a diary of woman interested in the prophetic nature of dreams o In journal, half of dreams are confirmed. Prophecy saw lots of people being happy Confirmation my professor canceled class, whole class cheered o After reading journal, subjects completed a filler task and then recalled as many dreams as they could. o Results: percentage recalled dreams confirmed 58%, not confirmed 28% Some prophecies can come true… o …not necessarily the result of any ability of the psychic to predict the future however o Rather our expectancies can influence our behavior. Ex. Psychic tells you that you are going to meet the love of your life this weekend. What do you think you’ll do that weekend? Go out more, meet new people, talk to potential dates, etc. Selffulfilling prophecy people’s expectations lead them to act in ways that result in the confirmation of their beliefs o Ex. stock market crashes: before crash, rumors of crash made people take money out. As a result, stock market crashed. o Ex. “Bloomers” study teachers led to believe certain children would “bloom”. Teachers show those children more attention, making them bloom. Which parent would you award/deny custody to? o Parent A: Average income Average health Average working hours Reasonable rapport with child Relatively stable social life o Parent B: Aboveaverage income Minor health problems Lots of work related travel Very close relationship with the child Extremely active social life Framing effect: o When asked to select parent to award child to: Most subjects selected parent B o When asked to select parent they would deny child to: Most subjects selected parent B o Why? When thinking of best parent, subjects look for the good information. When thinking of worst parent, subjects look for the bad information. Parent B (the mixed bag parent) has a little of both. o This framing effect is related to the confirmation bias. *Motivated reasoning: People don’t want to be right; they want to think they are right. They will only believe evidence that backs beliefs. Emotion Definition based on what happens: Significant life eventemotionsense of purpose (function and goal directedness), bodily arousal (physiological activation and preparedness for action), feeling (subjective experience, phenomenological awareness, cognitive interdependence), socialexpressive (face, body, vocal) Central Questions about Emotion: What causes emotion? o Cognition or biology What’s the mediator? Biological perspective: Evidence emotions start with biological processes o Infants (even those born blind) show emotion early on. Smiling 3 weeks old Anger 2 months old o Diversity of emotion expressiveness more in seeing children some emotion expressions is learned. o As we age, learning/cognition plays a larger role Ekman (1992) emotions: Come on quickly Are difficult to control Panksepp (1982;1984) Cognition is a verbal process. Emotions are difficult to describe. Electrical stimulation can stimulate emotional processing. Emotional processing occurs in infants and nonhuman animals. Physiological perspective: JamesLang theory physical experience leads to emotion o We are sad because we are crying. o We are happy because we are smiling. o TIGERFEAR AROUSALFEAR The Pencil Study hold with lips=frown, hold with teeth=smile o Facial Feedback Hypothesis The Golf Tee Study on eyebrows; don’t let them touch=calm face, keep them touching= angry grimace o Asked people to rate comics: smiling rated them as funnier than people who were frowning or grimacing. Biological Approach Russell and the Circumplex o 2 dimensions of emotion Valence positive to negative Arousal low to high Because there is a limit to the variability in physiological responses, there is a limit to what we can actually call emotion. So how many emotions are there? Ekman’s requirements for Basic Emotions: 1. Innate, not learned. 2. Arise from the same circumstances for all people. 3. Expressed uniquely and distinctly. 4. Evoke a distinctive and highly predictable physiological patterned response.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'