Chapter 4 Notes and Vocabulary
Chapter 4 Notes and Vocabulary
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Psychology
This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Lewis University taught by Lisa Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at Lewis University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 4 Notes External female genitalia Vulva: collective term for external female genitalia o Mons veneris - mons pubis o Labia majora o Labia minora o Clitoris o Vaginal opening o Urethral opening The mons veneris o Physical aspects Soft layer of fatty tissue Overlays area where pubic bones come together Considered erotic after puberty Numerous nerve endings o Functional aspects Gentle stimulation Cushions pubic area during sex Pubic hair? The labia: majora o Physical aspects Outer sets of lips Form mons to perineum Covered with pubic hair Remain separated to some extend when unstimulated o Functional aspects Cover and protect vaginal and urethral openings The labia: minora o Physical aspects Inner set of lips Located between labia majora Protrude beyond majora Pink and hairless Meet at top of vagina to form clitoral hood o Functional aspects Sensitive to touch Stimulation Provide some vaginal lubrication Counteracts acidity of vagina Sperm cannot survive in acidic environment The vaginal opening o Physical aspects Visible only when labia minora is parted Many nerve endings Smooth muscles o Functional aspects Sexual sensations Muscles Voluntarily Involuntarily Swell with blood, providing better grip on penis during sex The clitoris o Physical aspects Same tissue as the penis Twice as many nerve endings When not stimulated: Located under the clitoral hood Small, shiny button Shaft is located beneath hood o Functional aspects Sexual sensations Engorges with blood Increases in size Pulls back against pubic cone if stimulation continues ONLY structure in women or men with no known function other than sexual pleasure o Myths about the clitoris Size of the clitoris is NOT related to sexual pleasure in women Sexual pleasure is NOT related to physical proximity of clitoris and vaginal opening Penis does NOT directly stimulate the clitoris Indirectly stimulates clitoris by causing clitoral hood to rub back and forth Hymen o Physical aspects Only found in human females Thin membrane partially covering vaginal opening o Functional aspects Until shortly before birth, separates vagina from urinary system Remains as fold of membrane around vaginal opening No known physiological function o Myths about the hymen Myths Intact hymen indicates virginity in women Hymen ruptures upon first sexual experience involving penetration Bloodstained sheets Muslin, Chinese, Moroccan cultures Truth Very little bleeding or discomfort when ruptured May stay intact and just stretch No bleeding Can be ruptured by: Use of tampons Exercise/athletics Internal female genitalia The vagina o Physical aspects: External and internal structure Inner lining contains ridges Unstimulated state: 3 - 5 inches long Walls are collapsed Walls expand when stimulated Functional aspects: Depository for sperm Birth canal Expands 4 inches in diameter Self cleansing Natural bacteria Acidic environment Musky odor o Sexual sensation in the vagina Vaginal opening is sensitive to touch Inner 2/3 of the vagina have few nerve endings Insensitive to touch Muscle within the vaginal wall has some nerves Weak muscle = fewer sensations Kegel exercises o What is douching? Douche: wash/soak in French Water or mixture of fluids: vinegar, baking soda, iodine Purposes: Clean vaginal wall after menstruation Get rid of odor Avoid STIs prevent pregnancy The uterus o Physical aspects: Small upside-down pear 3 inches long 3 inches across - in women who have not had children Size of a small fist, in women who have not had children o Functional aspects: Womb for fertilized egg Produces blood vessels to support life Sloughed off it fertilization does not occur The cervix o Physical aspects: Lower end of the uterus Small opening Opening covered by mucous plug Opening expands during labor o Functional aspects: Connects uterus and vagina Fallopian tubes o Physical aspects: Four inches in length Attached to uterus No attachment to ovaries Attach to abdominal cavity close to each ovary o Functional aspects: Fertilization of egg occurs within Fallopian tubes Egg takes 3-4 days to go through tubes and reach the uterus The ovaries o Physical aspects: Oval shape Suspended by ligaments On both sides of the uterus o Functional aspects Female gonads - same tissue as male testicles Produce eggs 300,000 - 400,000 Produce female hormones Estrogen Progesterone The breasts o Physical aspects: Develop due to estrogen One is usually larger than the other Size is determined by the amount of fatty tissue in between mammary glands o Functional aspects: Sexual sensation - nipples become erect Production of breast milk during pregnancy - areola darkens in color o Breast size Augmentation Motivation: be more appealing to men - 80% of surgeries Saline/silicone implants 200,000 women per year Leaking is common Painful capsule can form around implant - breast looks unnatural, tight, and hard Reduction Motivation: larger breasts cause physical problems Difficult to find clothes Cost of bras Typically no adverse side effects from surgeries o Socio-cultural representation Inferior to penis As absence (passive) receptacle for penis Sexually inadequate Vagina as disgusting Vulnerable and abused As dangerous Hormones Luteinizing hormone (LH) Follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH) Estrogen Progesterone The endocrine system: pituitary gland o Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH Follicle: sac containing unfertilized egg Women - stimulates maturation of egg Men - stimulates production of sperm o Luteinizing hormone LH Triggers ovulation (release of an egg) Stimulates testicles to produce male hormones Hormones o Estrogen Promote development of female sex characteristic Regulates menstrual cycle Childbearing ages: 3 - 10 times more than men o Progesterone Regulates menstrual cycle Prepares/maintains pregnancy Supports implantation of egg May improve memory and cognitive development Develops myelin (covers axon of neurons) The menstrual cycle Menarche o Women's first menstrual bleeding o Early teens: age 11- 15 o Average age in U.S. has lowered Before 1920 - 13.3 years old After 1980 - 12.4 years Causes? o Timing: Heredity General health Altitude - earlier in lower altitudes The menstrual cycle o During puberty, FSH stimulates maturation of egg o Process of egg maturation takes a little less than one month o Uterus thickens to prepare for fertilization o No fertilization - uterus sheds lining (menstruation) o Average length is about 28 days - can vary 21 or 40 days o Four phases o Day 1 - start of menstruation o Menstruation is last days of cycle Pre-ovulatory phase - follicular phase o Days: 6-13 o Hormones: FSH (secreted by pituitary gland) and estrogen o Hormone purpose: growth of follicle o Follicle - secretes high levels of estrogen Tells pituitary gland to stop producing FSH and start producing LH Trigger thickening of uterine lining o Reproductive organs: uterus - lining thickens o Pituitary gland - FSH - follicle growth - estrogen - stops FSH in pituitary - LH - lining of uterus thickens Ovulation o Day 14 o Hormone - LH o Hormone purpose - triggers ovulation and changes in cervical mucus Mucus normally white and sticky Mucus becomes clear and slippery (egg white) o Follicle - ruptures, releasing egg into abdominal cavity o Reproductive organs - fallopian tube picks up egg o LH - follicle releases egg - fallopian tube picks up egg o Lower abdominal cramping for one day o Egg remains ripe for only about 24 hours o Sperm can live in fallopian tube for up to 5 days o Fertile period for women: days 9-15 5 days before ovulation - last days of pre-ovulatory phase 1 day after ovulation - first day or postovulatory phase Postovulatory phase - luteal phase o Days 15-28 o Hormones - estrogen and progesterone o Hormone purpose Progesterone - inhibits LH hormone, further preps uterus Estrogen - further preps uterus o Reproductive organ - uterus o Egg - if fertilization occurs: Egg continues through Fallopian tube and implants in uterus Uterine lining develops as placenta Progesterone and estrogen - uterus lining thickens - fertilization - hormones rise to support pregnancy OR Progesterone and estrogen - uterus lining thickens - no fertilization - hormones drop, menstruation Menstruation o Days 1-4 o Hormones - estrogen and progesterone - declining Loss of estrogen - release of FSH o Hormone purpose - trigger menstruation o Reproduce organs - uterus and cervix Uterine lining and cervical mucus are shed o Egg - unfertilized egg is shed Length of menstrual cycle o Adolescence: longer than 28 days o Full adults (30's): closer to 28 o Rarely 28 days exactly o Varies most during 2-5 years after first menstruation and before menopause o Menstrual synchrony Attitudes about menstruation o Biblical Hebrews: unclean or impure o Roman Empire o Thoughts today? Menopause Cessation of menstruation 12 consecutive months with no other biological cause (pregnancy/disease) 45-55 years old Factors include: o Genetics o Smoking cigarettes o Poor nutrition o Disease (diabetes, autoimmune disorders, HIV) o More ovulatory phases, less pregnancies o Less oral contraceptive use o Month in which she was born Perimenopause Onset of menopausal symptoms Duration - 4 years (can last few months to 10 years) 85% of women have some symptoms Symptoms caused by: o Estrogen level decreasing o Society's view of postmenopausal women Perimenopause symptoms o Tissues of labia majora, uterus shrink o Body of redistributes from thighs, buttocks to abdomen o Night sweats and hot flashes o Bone mass decreases o Dry skin o Increased risk of cardiovascular disease o Depression and anxiety o Forgetfulness o Irritability or mood swings Hormone replacement therapy Replacement of estrogen and progesterone with synthetic equivalents Long-term benefits: o Decrease risk of dementia o Reduce risk of osteoporosis o Decreased night sweats and hot flashes o Increase libido in postmenopausal women Long-term risks: o Increase risk of: breast cancer, stroke, heart attack, blood cloths, dementia, death o Only for women who take HRT many years after menopause **Regular exercise, healthy diet, avoid spicy food and caffeine Reproductive health issues Pelvic inflammatory disease o Infection of uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries o Caused by STI's o Symptoms: Abdominal pain Unusual vaginal discharge/bleeding Nausea Vomiting Fever o Treatment Antibiotics No treatment for advanced cases Causes sterility o Who is at risk? Women under age of 25 Sexually active Utilize douching Endometriosis o Uterine lining grows outside uterus o Ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder o Cause is unknown Environmental pollutants o Treatment = surgery, progestins Hysterectomy o Surgical removal of the uterus o 1/3 of American women by age 60 o Causes: Cancer Endometriosis Tumors in uterus Menstrual problems Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) - postovulatory phase (days 15-28) Physical symptoms o Bloating o Breast tenderness o Abdominal swelling o Swollen hands and feet o Weight gain o Constipation o Headaches o Acne o Muscle pain o Insomnia o Change in energy level o Craving sweet/salty foods Emotional symptoms o Depression o Anxiety o Tension o Irritability o Inability to concentrate Dysmenorrhea Physical pains: cramps, back/headaches, bloating, nausea Primary symptoms: not associated with pelvic abnormalities Secondary: o Endometriosis o PID o Ovarian cysts Treatments: o Ibuprofen o Birth control pill o Orgasms Amenorrhea Absence for 3 months or more Causes: pituitary or ovarian problems or weight Low estrogen can cause osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease Normal: o Pregnancy o Brest-feeding o After use of birth control pills o First few cycles of menstruation Toxic shock syndrome Symptoms: o Flu-like o Sudden high fever o Vomiting o Diarrhea o Fainting/dizziness o Low blood pressure o Red rash (looks like sunburn) Staphylococcus bacteria Extra absorbent tampons 3-4 times per day Chapter 4 Vocabulary Vulva - the external female genitalia, or pudendum which means "something to be ashamed of" in Latin Sebum - a waxy secretion that helps to protect the vulva Mons pubic - the pad of fat that covers, cushions, and protects the pubic joint, also called mons veneris - "mound of Venus" in Latin Labia majora - larger outer folds of skin on both sides of the vulva Homologous/analogous - homologous structures have the same evolutionary origin, but may have a different function, analogous structures have the same function, but evolved independently Labia minora - the inner hairless lips that surround the vaginal opening Labiaplasty - a surgical alteration in the size and/or appearance of the labia Clitoris - the very sensitive bit of erectile tissue located in the front of the vulva Clitoridectomy - surgical removal of all or part of the clitoris, also called female genital mutilation (FGM) Infibulation - the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, as well as parts of the labia majora Vestibule - the cavity between the labia minora that contains the opening of the urethra and vagina Urethra - tube that carries urine from the bladder Hymen - the fold of tissue that may cover the vaginal opening Greater vestibular glands - also called Bartholin's glands, these glands secrete mucus during sexual arousal Lesser vestibular glands - also called Skene's glands or the female prostate, these glands may be involved with female ejaculation Pubococcygeus muscles - the sling of muscles that form the pelvic floor Vagina - from the Latin word, meaning "sheath" or "scabbard", the vagina is the muscular passage into which the penis is inserted during heterosexual intercourse and through which the baby passes during birth G-spot - a reportedly highly sensitive area on the anterior (front) wall of the vagina Lactobacteria - beneficial bacteria that help prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms in the vagina Douche - a device or procedure in which water, vinegar, or other solutions are gently sprayed into the vagina Uterus - the pear-shaped organ in which a fertilized egg is implanted and a fetus develops Cervix - the lower part of the uterus that leads into the vagina and dilates during childbirth Os - the opening of the cervix Endometrium - the inner lining of the uterus, consisting of epithelial cells, blood vessels, and glands Myometrium - the thick middle layer of the uterus, made up of smooth muscle Perimetrium - the outermost layer of the uterus Fallopian tubes - these tubes lead from the ovaries to the uterus, and carry the egg on its way to the uterus, also called uterine tubes or oviducts Fimbriae - fingerlike projections of the fallopian tube Ectopic pregnancy - when the fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus Ovaries - the female gonads that produce eggs, estrogen, and progesterone Breast - containing skin, fat, connective tissue, and mammary glands, breasts produce milk for the young, breasts are also a secondary sexual characteristic Nipple - the pigmented erectile tissue in the center of the surface of the breast from which milk is secreted Areola - the colored area around the nipple Puberty - the stage of life during with physical growth and sexual maturation occur Lactation - the secretion of milk from the breast Luteinizing hormone (LH) - a hormone that stimulates ovulation in females Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - a hormone that stimulated the development of eggs during a woman's ovulatory cycle Estrogen - a generic term for a group of female sex hormones that affect secondary sexual characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle Progesterone - secreted by the ovaries, progesterone is very important in the maintenance of pregnancy Oogenesis - the production of eggs Oogonia - a stem cell that will become a primary oocyte Primary oocyte - an immature female germ cell containing 46 chromosomes Follicles - fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries that contain the primary oocytes and hormone secreting cells Secondary oocyte - also called the ovum, this is a female germ cell containing 23 chromosomes that is released from the ovary during ovulation Polar body - a by product of meiosis, this cell contains 23 chromosomes but is nonfunctional Ovulation - release of the ovum into the fallopian tube Menstruation - the shedding of the uterine lining that occurs approximately once a month Menarche - a woman's first menstrual cycle Menstrual phase - also called menses, the shedding of the endometrium on days 1-5 of the cycle Follicular phase - the stage when the endometrium begins to thicken and develop, typically around days 6-13 of the cycle Ovulation - the release of the secondary oocyte, usually around day 14 of the cycle Corpus luteum - the hormone-releasing cells left behind in the ovary after the ovum has been released Luteal phase - typically from days 15-28; during this stage the hormones released from the corpus luteum prepare the body for possible pregnancy Menstrual synchrony - the theory that the menstrual cycles of women who live together tend to be synchronized over time Climacteric - the gradual transitional period between one's reproductive and post- reproductive years Perimenopause - the time from the onset of menopausal symptoms until 1 year after a woman's last period Menopause - the time of life when a woman's menstrual cycles permanently end, usually around age 51 Hot flash - sudden, temporary feeling of warmth, flushing, and sweating, often associated with menopause Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) - the replacement of naturally occurring estrogen and progesterone with (usually) synthetic equivalents to treat the symptoms of menopause Progestin - a synthetic of externally derived form of progesterone Osteoporosis - a disease in which bones become porous and easily fractured, this can often occur in postmenopausal women Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) - an infection of the upper reproductive system in women that can lead to scarring and infertility if untreated Endometriosis - the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus Fibroid tumors - a benign tumor that commonly grows on the uterus Hysterectomy - the surgical removal of the uterus, sometimes the cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries are removed as well Gynecologist - a physician who specializes in the health of the female reproductive system Pap smear - developed by Dr. George Papanicolaou, this procedure involves a physician taking a sample of cells from the cervix to test for cellular changes that may indicate infection or cancer Mammogram - an X-ray of the soft tissue of the breast, used to defect abnormalities such as tumors Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) - the physical and/or emotional difficulties that some women experience in the days before menstruation Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) - a severe and debilitating form of PMS Dysmenorrhea - pain or discomfort during menstruation Amenorrhea - the absence of menstruation, usually caused by disease, stress, low body fat, or excessive exercise Leptin - a hormone that plays a key role in appetite regulation and fat metabolism Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) - a rare but potentially fatal pattern of symptoms caused by bacteria, the use of very absorbent tampons can increase the risk of TSS
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