Chapter 6 Notes and Vocab
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Psychology
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 6 Notes Sexual response Virginia Johnson and William Masters 312 men and 382 women Ages 18-89 Laboratory: plain room with bed and recording equipment Recorded over 10,000 sexual episodes leading to orgasm Measured: o Heart rate o Blood pressure o Muscle tension o Respiration o Brain waves o Volume of blood in genitals Sexual response cycle Four phases: o Excitement o Plateau o Orgasm o Resolution Phases are arbitrarily defined Stages flow together Desire Drive/motivation for sexual activity Masters and Johnson do not include desire - can't measure Helen Kaplan added desire Perceptivity: lust or libido Arousability: capacity to become aroused Men o Desire and arousal are usually connected Women o Desire and arousal not always connected o May feel desire without physical evidence o No lubrication o No increased blood flow to genitals o Discrepancy between women's reports of arousal and physical evidence o Lubricated women is at lower risk for vaginal tearing and infection if sex is nonconsensual Men's sexual response cycle: excitement (arousal) Increase in heart rate/blood pressure Scrotum thickens o Muscle contracts o Testicles engorge with blood, enlarge, elevate Erection of the penis o Begins with 3-8 seconds after stimulation o Tissues are engorged with blood Nipple erection Sex flush: rash-like reddening of the skin of the upper abdomen and chest caused by dilating capillaries Erections not always related to sexual content Baby boys REM sleep Women's sexual response cycle: excitement Vaginal walls become engorged with blood Vaginal lubrication: o Secretion of few drops of fluid on inner surface o 1st physiological response o Does not mean woman is ready to begin Labia majora: flatten, begin to move apart Labia minora: increase in size and darken in color Inner 2/3 of the vaginal walls open; outer 1/3 narrows Cervix and uterus pull up Clitoris becomes erect and engorges with blood, increasing in size Nipples become erect; areolae darken Women vs. men: excitement Men o Erection of penis o Confirms or amplifies arousal o Noticeably physical Women o Slight vaginal lubrication o May not even notice o Subjective? Situational cues? Plateau stage Genitalia deepens in color Sex flush further spreads Increase in: heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, muscle tension Lasts few seconds to few minutes Longer than plateau, stronger the orgasm Men's sexual response cycle: plateau High sexual arousal Sets stage for orgasm Can be quite short in some men Dimeter of penis increases Cowper's gland releases fluid to protect sperm Testicles fully engorge with blood o Size increase is 50-100% o Elevate and rotate Women's sexual response cycle: plateau Clitoris shortens and pulls back under clitoral hood Breasts (areolas) engorge with blood and swell o Nipple erection Secretion of fluids from vaginal walls decrease as plateau phase is prolonged Labia minora thicken in size and change in color (pink to wine) Inner 2/3 of vagina expands Outer 1/3 of vagina engorge with blood and swell Narrowing of vaginal opening Penis size Orgasm Feeling of euphoria Facial contortions Loss of voluntary muscle control Spasms of hands/feet Release of muscle tension Vocalization (shouting, sighing) Peak in: o Blood pressure o Respiratory rate o Heart rate Brain areas related to reward are activated Amygdala shuts down Release of hormones: o Prolactin - sleepy feeling o Endorphins - pleasure o Oxytocin - sexual bonding Definition: rhythmic muscular contractions that initially occurred every 0.8 seconds, but then diminish in intensity and regularity Men's sexual response cycle: orgasm Emission: o Rhythmic muscular contractions Vans deferens Prostate gland Seminal vesicles o Forces sperm and prostate/seminal fluid into ejaculatory ducts (forming semen) o Muscles contract closing urethra o "I'm coming!" feeling (ejaculatory inevitability) Expulsion (ejaculation): o Contraction in urethra and muscles at base of penis o Force semen from the penis o Muscles surrounding urethra contract further o Orgasm including stimulation of prostate o Occurs in spurts 1st contains sperm 2nd contains spermicidal secretions from seminal vesicles Orgasm vs. ejaculation Orgasm - subjective pleasurable sensations Ejaculation - release of semen from the body Two different events Do not always occur together Epididymo-orchitis Inflammation of the testicles and epididymis Sexual arousal not resulting in ejaculation Blood collects in testicles - ache and bluish tinge in scrotum Does not last long Does not cause permanent damage Similar condition does exist for women Women's sexual response cycle: orgasm Muscles around clitoris contract Clitoris engorges with blood - muscle reflex 3-15 contractions at 0.8 second intervals Fluid from Skene's glands Less than 1/3 of women have vaginal orgasms regularly Occurs in single stage Multiple orgasms More than one orgasm before returning to pre-plateau level Clitoris may be too sensitive Multiple factors impact woman's ability to orgasm Sexual response cycle: resolution Men o Return to the unaroused state o Loss of erection (normal blood flow to penis) o Decrease in testicle size o Movement of testicles away from body Women o Return to unaroused state o Return to normal size o Return to normal color Men's sexual response cycle: resolution Refractory period: o time after an orgasm in which it is physiologically impossible for a man to achieve another orgasm Occurs during resolution phase After orgasm, physiological responses fall below plateau level Must reach plateau level to have an orgasm Different for each man Tends to last longer as men age Tends to last longer after each successive orgasm "Coolidge Effect" Women vs. men: sexual response cycle Men o Lineal model Physiology Genital arousal o Desire driven by biology Testosterone o Higher level of sexual desire Frequency of sexual thoughts Preferred frequency of sex Frequency of masturbation Women o Non-linear model Intimacy needs Relational context Cognitive interpretation of sexual stimulation o Desire driven by relationship and intimacy needs o Sexual desire is responsive not spontaneous External substances Aphrodisiacs - substances that are thought to cause arousal or increase sexual response Examples: o Genitals of bulls/rams o Ground horns of rhinoceros, reindeer o Sugared milk in which testicles of bull or ram have been boiled o Vegetables that resemble genitalia Anaphrodisiacs - substances that inhibit sexual response o Antidepressants (Prozac) Delay or make erections/orgasms difficult o Opioids (codeine, heroin, oxytocin, cough suppressants) Diminish sexual function Orgasms difficult o Nicotine Constricts blood vessels Genitals unable to engorge with blood Chapter 6 Vocabulary Erotic - relating to or tending to arouse sexual desire or excitement Human sexual response cycle (HSRC) - Masters and Johnson's four-stage model of physiological responses that occur during sexual stimulation Sexual response - the physical and emotional ways a person may respond to sexual stimulation Desire - a drive or motivation to seek out sexual objects or to engage in sexual activities Proceptivity - an automatic hormonally driven, situation-independent sexual response Arousability - a person's ability to become sexually aroused once certain triggers or situations are encountered Excitement - the body's initial physical response to sexual arousal Vasocongestion - accumulation of blood in to genitals caused by sexual excitement Sex flush - a reddening of the skin of the chest and upper abdomen that can spread to other parts of the body Erection - the enlarged and firm state of the penis, clitoris, or nipple Autonomic nervous system (ANS) - a series of nerves that carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the heart, smooth muscle, and glands, the ANS includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Sympathetic nervous system - a series of nerves that are involved with "fight or flight" responses, the sympathetic nervous system also diminishes erection and is more active during orgasm Parasympathetic nervous system - nerve pathways involved with maintaining "business as usual" processes in the body, as well as erections REM sleep - the stage of sleep associated with rapid eye movements, dreams, erections, and a lack of skeletal muscle tone Plateau - the period of sexual excitement prior to orgasm, characterized by intensification of the changes begun during excitement Orgasmic platform - the swelling of the walls of the outer third of the vagina, which occurs during the plateau stage Orgasm - waves of intense pleasure, often associated with vaginal contractions in females in ejaculation in males Multiple orgasm - when a person has an orgasm, and then has one or more additional orgasms without his or her body first going through resolution Emission - the first stage of male orgasm, when seminal fluids move into the upper urethra Ejaculatory inevitability - the feeling of a "point of no return" when an orgasm is coming and it can't be prevented Retrograde ejaculation - when ejaculate fluid enters a man's bladder rather than leaving the body Ejaculation - the ejection of sperm and semen from the penis, usually accompanied by orgasm Refractory period - the period after an orgasm during which a male is physiologically incapable of having another orgasm Resolution - the last stage in Masters and Johnson's sexual response cycle, when the body returns to its non-excited states Triphasic model - Helen Singer Kaplan's model of sexual response that includes desire, excitement, and orgasm Erotic stimulus pathway theory - David Reed's model of sexual arousal that includes seduction, sensation, surrender, and reflection Cardiovascular disease - a disease of the heart or blood vessels, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death and disability in the US Diabetes - a metabolic disease in which the body is unable to produce or is resistant to insulin, leading to abnormally high levels of blood sugar Spectatoring - mentally stepping outside of oneself during sexual activity with a partner and monitoring the experience Central nervous system - the brain and spinal cord Cerebral cortex - from the Latin for "bark," the cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, important in sensation, voluntary movement, memory, awareness, language, reasoning, and higher thought Hypothalamus - a part of the brain involved in hormone release, biological rhythms, emotions, and sex drive Neurotransmitter - a chemical substance released from a nerve cells that carries signals between the neuron and other cells Hypogonadism - low functioning of the ovaries or testes Castration - surgical or chemical disabling of the testes so as to drastically reduce a male's testosterone levels Primary erogenous zones - sensitive areas of the body, often located around the body openings, that lead to sexual arousal when stimulated Secondary erogenous zones - areas of the body that become sensitized through personal experience Limbic system - a set of structures in the brain that controls emotions, instinctive behavior, and motivation, the hypothalamus is part of the limbic system Pherormones - a chemical released by one individual that changes the physiology or behavior os another individual of the same species Vomeronasal organ (VNO) - the organ that detects pheromones in many species, its function in humans is controversial Sexual disorder - an inability to react physically or emotionally to sexual stimulation compared to an average healthy person or according to one's own standards Hypoactive sexual desire (HSD) - absent or deficient desire for sexual activity Discrepancy in desire - when partners routinely experience different levels of sexual desire to the point where it ahs a negative impact on their relationship Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) - a form of therapy that seeks to modify fixed patterns of negative thoughts and behaviors Sexual aversion disorder - aversion to or avoidance of sexual activity Sensate focus - designed to reduce anxiety, these exercises help participants focus on the sensory experience, rather than viewing orgasm as the sole goal of sex Sexual arousal disorders - the persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain sufficient sexual excitement necessary for satisfactory sexual encounters Impotence - a failure to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual activity; from the Latin, meaning "loss of power" Erectile dysfunction - the persistent inability of a mean to obtain or sustain an erection Viagra - one of a number of drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) - the enzyme inhibited by Viagra Vacuum pressure pumps - a manual or battery-operated pump that draws blood into the penis to create an erection Vascular surgery - an operation to improve blood flow to the penis to improve erection Penile implant - a surgical implant that creates an artificial erection Orgasmic disorder - when there is a delay or in absence of orgasm following sexual stimulation, or if orgasm occurs more quickly than desired Premature ejaculation - ejaculation that occurs too rapidly for one's partner to fully enjoy sexual relations Start-stop technique - a method of overcoming premature ejaculation in which a man and his partner learn to recognize when he is approaching orgasm, temporarily stop sexual stimulation, and restart when he has regained some control Delayed ejaculation - when a man is unable to reach orgasm within a satisfactory amount of time Anorgasmia - an inability to reach orgasm, even with "adequate" stimulation Dyspareunia - difficult or painful sexual intercourse Vaginismus - a painful involuntary spasm of the muscles of the vagina Lesbian death bed (LBD) - the slang term for the diminishment of sexual activity between two long-term lesbian partners Aphrodisiacs - substances that are thought to arouse or increase sexual response Anaphrodisiac - a substance that diminishes sexual desire
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