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CDS, Week 4 Notes Milestones

by: Chelsea Curry

CDS, Week 4 Notes Milestones CDS 101

Marketplace > Geneva College > Speech and Communications > CDS 101 > CDS Week 4 Notes Milestones
Chelsea Curry

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Notes on the milestones in speech, language, use, form, and context of children around the world as they acquire the basic human ability to communicate.
Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders
Dr. Hockenberger
Class Notes
developmental, Linguistics, communication, intro




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Curry on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDS 101 at Geneva College taught by Dr. Hockenberger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders in Speech and Communications at Geneva College.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
9/15/16 Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders III. ​Milestones ➢ Stages of Vocal Development ○ Reflexive/ vegetative (0-1 mo.) ○ Cooing (vowel-like sounds) (2-3 mo.) ○ Vocal play (experimental, attention-seeking) (4-6 mo.) ○ Reduplicated babbling (7-9 mo.) ○ Variegated babbling (10-12 mo.) ○ Jargon (12-18 mo.) ➢ Emergence of Intentionality ○ Until roughly 7 mo., infants are ​pre-intentional ○ Between 7 and 12 mo. infants have intentional communication, evidenced by gestures, pointing, and eye contact ➢ Transition to Symbolic Representation ○ Words are arbitrary symbols that represent concepts in the world ○ Nothing to do with the concepts they actually represent ○ 12 mo.: infants begin using symbols, including words with referential gestures ➢ The First Word ○ First “true word” around 7 mo. ○ What makes a true word? ■ Clear intention and purpose ■ Recognizable pronunciation ■ Consistent use and extends beyond original context ● PCF’s (Phonetically Consistent Forms) ➢ Achievements in Context ○ Vocabulary Spurt ■ After 50 words, increase in vocabulary acquisition ○ Underextention- newly learned words to specific referents rather than to a category of referents ○ Overextention- when a child uses a word in a broader context than adults would consider appropriate on correct ➢ Achievements in Form ○ Grammatical Morphemes (p.55) ○ 14 grammatical morphemes ○ Transition to multi-word utterances ○ Distinct grammar that governs word order ○ Measured by MLU (Mean Length Utterance) ■ # of morphemes/# of sentences = Avg. MLU ○ Basic mastery of three sentence form ■ yes/no ■ Wh- questions ■ Negatives ➢ Achievements in Use (pragmatics) ○ Instrumental- to ask for something ○ regulatory - directing others ○ interactional - be social ○ Personal- express their feelings ○ Heuristic- ask for information ○ Imaginative-to tell stories ○ Informative- provide information ■ Often lack some of these conversational skills b/c they are learning ➢ Achievements in Speech ○ 2 yo. Produce correctly on average 70% of the sounds they use ○ Attaiment of phonoems pg. 61 ○ Check them out!!! ○ Phonological process-used to make speech attainable ➢ Achievements in Context ○ Lexicon development ○ Children learn 8,600 root words between 1yo. And the end of second grade. ○ Preschoolers start to learn words through “incidental exposure” ○ Fast-mapping ■ Child’s first exposure to a word ○ Decontextulaizing language ○ No longer relies on here and now ○ Relies more on language skills ➢ Achievements in Form ○ Grammatical morphemes ○ Deriviational morphology ■ The verb “to be” ● COPULA- Both uncontratable and contractable ● AUXILLARY- both uncontractale and contractable ○ Sentence structures become more complex ➢ Achievements in Use ○ Additional functions of language ■ Conversational skills ● Takes turn in a conversation ● Maintain conversation ■ Narrative ● Presents topic ● Organizes information ● Personal vs fictional ● Culturally-based ➢ Achievements in Speech ○ Almost all sounds mastered \ ○ Suppression of phonological processes ○ No longer developmentally appropriate to use these processes ➢ Achievements in Emergent Literacy ○ Developing knowledge about reading and writing conventions ○ Print awareness ■ Understanding the form and function of written language ○ Phonological awareness ■ Understanding the sound structure of spoken words ○ Alphabet knowledge (school age children) ○ Functional flexibility ■ Use of language of a variety of communicative purposes and functions ■ For persuasion ● Adjust to a listener ● State advantages ● Anticipate and reply to counterarguments ● Positive techniques to increase compliance ● Avoid negative strategy ● Variety in arguments, assertion ● Figurative language ○ Metacognitive and metalinguistic ○ Refinements in form and understanding ■ Multiple meanings ■ Lexical ambiguity ■ Figurative language ■ Past participles ■ Perfective aspect


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